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dioscorea japonica nutrition

PGE2 production was quantified by enzyme immunoassay. Human non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line A549 (ATCC CCL-185) and human colon carcinoma cell line Caco-2 (ECACC 86010202) were obtained from RIKEN BioResource Center (Tsukuba, Japan). The present study showed that Dioscorea japonica extract suppresses mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 in human non-small-cell lung carcinoma A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Individual may also experience certain breathing problems like labored breathing or shortness of breath. PGE2 released in the culture medium of A549 cells was quantified by enzyme immunoassay. The use of wild yam is known to prevent and control erratic blood pressure. The plant is not self-fertile. hirticaulis (Bartlett) H.E.Ahles, Dioscorea villosa var. 4A). Wild Yam is dioecious, producing vines with either all male flowers or all female flowers. 5B). twining vine native to the central southeastern US and found less frequently in the Appalachian region Cyclooxygenase-2 level and culture conditions influence NS398-induced apoptosis and caspase activation in lung cancer cells. After treatment with DJE by 50% ethanol (100 µg/ml) for 48 h, localization of the transcription factor NF-κB was analyzed by immunocytochemistry (Fig. Thus, it may prove valuable in controlling inflammatory and metabolic processes as well as carcinogenesis. It cannot grow in the shade and requires moist soil. Isolation and identification of steroidal saponins in Taiwanese yam cultivar (Dioscorea pseudojaponica Yamamoto). (18) In the present study, linoleic acid was used as the substrate because it presents several advantages over arachidonic acid. Dioscorea japonica, known as East Asian mountain yam, yamaimo, or Japanese mountain yam, is a type of yam native to Japan (including Ryukyu and Bonin Islands), Korea, China, Taiwan, and Assam.. Dioscorea japonica is used for food.Jinenjo, also called the wild yam, is a related variety of Japanese yam that is used as an ingredient in soba noodles. 6). Several phytochemicals from other natural products, such as resveratrol,(27) humulon,(28) and chrysin,(29) have been shown to suppress the expression of COX-2. Changes in protein expression of COX-2 and mPGES-1 after treatment with DJE. This exotic vegetable originally hails from China and Japan. Collected A549 cells (5 × 105 cells) after the treatment with or without DJE for 48 h were sonicated in 100 µl of 10 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.6) and then were centrifuged at 10,000 × g. The supernatants (30 µg protein/well) were subjected to 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyaclylamidegel electrophoresis, and were transferred electrophoretically to a Hybond-P polyvinylidene difluoride membrane (Amersham Biosciences, Buckinghamshire, UK). Individual male flowers are about 1/8 inches (3 mm.) It was introduced in Europe in the 19 th century when the potato crop was affected by disease. Subbaramaiah K, Chung WJ, Michaluart P, et al. The supernatants were incubated with 25 mM linoleic acid at 24°C for 5 min in the standard COX reaction mixture and the products were quantified using reversed-phase HPLC, as described in the Materials and Methods section. 2A, 3B, 6A) or Dunnett’s (Fig. Root should not be stored for longer than 1 year, since it is likely to lose its medicinal virtues. Powder form of Wild Yam can be added to cream or vaginal ointments. Released PGE2 in the culture medium of A549 cells was also significantly decreased to 31% (647 pg/ml) by DJE treatment (Fig. . The ePub format uses eBook readers, which have several "ease of reading" features On female vines, racemes of 5-15 female flowers about 3-9 inches long develop from the leaf axils. 3.0 software (Fujifilm, Tokyo, Japan). Keelung yam exerted pronounced effects in lipid metabolism. HODEs metabolized from linoleic acid were stable and these are quantified by the typical reversed-phase HPLC analysis for low-molecular-weight lipids, although PGH2 synthesized from arachidonic acid is highly unstable and is immediately and non-enzymatically metabolized to several PGs. Stems are little branched, leafy, grooved or narrowly winged, mostly hairless, lack tendrils and twine around other vegetation for support, and spreads by seed or branching rhizomes. Yams are perennial herbaceous vines cultivated for the consumption of their starchy tubers in many temperate and tropical regions, especially in Africa, South America and the Caribbean, Asia, and Oceania. Addition of DJE made no significant difference on cell proliferation in the experimental period. It is famous for balancing female hormones and assists in the natural development of breast growth. 1 and 7) post-hoc test at significance level of p<0.05 or 0.01. PubMed:Neurotrophic activity of DA-9801, a mixture extract of Dioscorea japonica Thunb. While there are over 600 species of wild yam, only 12 are edible. 5B). The plant has long, branched, crooked, and woody root, the taste being dull, afterwards acrid. Toshiko Suzuki-Yamamoto, Sayuri Tanaka, [...], and Yoshitaka Takahashi. Rainsford KD. 6A). Dioscorea Opposita is the Chinese wild yam which can be eaten raw. But there are several other ways that wild yam can be used to improve health. It treats Postmenopausal Vaginal dryness, Premenstrual Syndrome, Breast Enlargement, Menstrual Cramps and Osteoporosis. Cluc reporter plasmid with COX-2 promoter was used for the promoter activity assay, as described in the Materials and Methods section (B). Increased expression of COX-2 is commonly observed in lung tumors as well as in many other tumors. Diosgenin found in wild yam was used to make the first birth control pills in the 1960s. Fresh dried root, made into a tea, is good for morning sickness. Wild yam encourages the flow of bile to the duodenum, a part of the small intestine. (19,20) Similarly, the expression of inducible mPGES-1, preferentially coupled with COX-2, for PGE2 synthesis is enhanced in tumors. Dioscorea japonica, known as East Asian mountain yam, yamaimo, or Japanese mountain yam, is a type of yam native to Japan (including Ryukyu and Bonin Islands), Korea, China, Taiwan, and Assam.. Dioscorea japonica is used for food.Jinenjo, also called the wild yam, is a related variety of Japanese yam that is used as an ingredient in soba noodles. Three spirostanol glycosides from rhizomes of Dioscorea collettii var. Roots are anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, cholagogue, diaphoretic and vasodilator. (9,21) NS-398, a type of NSAID, is an effective and selective COX-2 inhibitor(22,23) and has been found to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. glauca (Muhl. across, consisting of 6 whitish green or yellowish green tepals and 6 fertile stamens. Skype: healthbenefit55. (16) The lysates were incubated with 100 mM Tris–HCl buffer (pH 7.4) containing 25 mM linoleic acid, and the products were analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC using a COSMOSIL 5C18-MS-II column (5 mm particle, 4.6 × 250 mm, Nacalai Tesque, Kyoto, Japan) with a solvent system of methanol/water/acetic acid (80:20:0.01, v/v). In some pathological conditions such as cancer and inflammation, NF-κB is translocated from the cytosol to the nucleus and plays a key role in regulating COX-2 transcriptional activity. Wild yam also aids in the proper functioning of the digestive, excretory and nervous systems. Our results may be important in understanding the preventive effects of D. japonica against the lifestyle-related disease conditions that are mediated by PGE2, although additional in vivo studies are required to address the physiological significance of our findings. Disclaimer, e-mail: [email protected] The immunoreactive proteins were visualized using BM chemiluminescence Western blotting kit (Roche). It cannot grow in the shade and requires moist soil, Long, branched, crooked, and woody, the taste being insipid, afterwards acrid, pale-brown, knotty, woody, cylindrical tubers which are light brown outside and white fibrous inside, Slender, rarely branched and tends to twine right to left or counterclockwise, Alternately arranged leaves are heart- shaped. *p<0.05 compared with treatment with 0 µM diosgenin. The produced 9- and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (HODEs) which cochromatographed on reversed-phase HPLC as a single peak were quantified by the comparison of the area of the peak with that of an internal standard, 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE). Supernatants obtained from the centrifugation (10,000 × g) of lysates from A549 and Caco-2 cells were used as enzyme sources for measurement of COX activity. PGES has at least 3 isozymes, microsomal PGES (mPGES)-1,(5) mPGES-2,(6,7) and cytosolic PGES (cPGES). https://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=43367#null, https://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/53538/, https://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Dioscorea+villosa, https://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/y/yam—01.html, https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=divi4, http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-241123, https://herbpathy.com/Uses-and-Benefits-of-Dioscorea-Villosa-Cid2195, https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/natural/970.html, http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Wild%20Yam.html, http://pennstatehershey.adam.com/content.aspx?productId=107&pid=33&gid=000280, https://www.frostburg.edu/fsu/assets/File/ACES/Dioscorea%20villosa%20-%20FINAL(3).pdf, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dioscorea_villosa. More research is needed to determine whether wild yam would help people with high cholesterol. Wild Yam is one of the leading ingredients in most breast enhancement supplements/creams since it encourages healthy breast tissue. It helps to relieve Hepatic Congestion, Bilious Colic and Gallstones. Dioscorea japonica feeding and Dioscorea japonica extract topical application suppressed the expression of cyclooxygenase-2, microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1, interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 and inhibited tumor formation, hyperplasia and inflammatory cell infiltration. In lung cancer cells, inhibition of COX-2 by trichostatin A,(25) a histone deacetylase inhibitor, or celecoxib,(26) a NSAID that acts as a selective COX-2 inhibitor, correlates with a decrease in PGE2 production. (31) In addition, diosgenin has been shown to induce apoptosis in HepG2 and HEL cells. The cycling conditions were 30 s at 95°C, followed by 40 cycles of 95°C for 5 s and 60°C for 10 s. Expression levels of COX-2, mPGES-1 and Bcl-2 mRNAs were normalized to those of GAPDH mRNA. Further, in human colon carcinoma model Caco-2 cells, treatment with DJE led to the suppression of COX-2 and mPGES-1 mRNAs to approximately 67% compared with the control (Fig. This can cause pain and stiffness that limits mobility in people with the condition. 2A). In light of this, inhibition of mPGES-1, which acts downstream of COX-2, represents an attractive target for selective inhibition of PGE2 production, with a potentially safer profile than COX-2 inhibitors. It is in flower from September to October. The flattened seeds have broad membranous wings; they are distributed by the wind. Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity . (17) COX-2/Cluc plasmid with COX-2 promoter region and Cypridina luciferase (Cluc) as a reporter gene was transfected to A549 cells. Induction of apoptosis by trichostatin A, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, is associated with inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 activity in human non-small cell lung cancer cells. © 2020 Healthbenefitstimes. glabrifolia (Bartlett) S.F.Blake, Dioscorea villosa var. Volume 64, Issue 17. Hyperpigmentation is harmless and rather common, but it can be frustrating since it is a skin condition that develops, rather noticeably, as darker patches of skin.(3). 2A). Diosgenin is a major steroidal saponin constituent and is found more abundantly in D. japonica compared with other food substances. This is a popular form of wild yam and can be easily added to water, smoothies, or green juices. Last … Localization of the transcription factor NF-κB (red) and DAPI (blue, nuclear counterstain) was visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy (A). Consuming wild yam can give rise to many allergic reactions like rashes or hives in some women. Tanioka T, Nakatani Y, Semmyo N, Murakami M, Kudo I. Molecular identification of cytosolic prostaglandin E. Yoshimatsu K, Altorki NK, Golijanin D, et al. 2014 Nov; 55(3): 162–167. Traditional medicine practitioners believe that wild yam has anti-inflammatory properties and use it to treat rheumatoid arthritis. Shimizu T, Wolfe LS. mRNA expression of the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2 were measured by real-time PCR (A). Decrease in COX activity (A) and PGE2 production (B) after treatment with DJE. Plant affords one of the best and fastest cures for bilious colic. After converting total RNA to cDNA using High-Capacity cDNA Reverse Transcription Kit (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA), quantitative PCR was performed using Eva Green-Comparative Ct method (Bio-Rad). Effect of diosgenin on the expression of COX-2 and mPGES-1 in A549 cells. The relative expression levels were shown against control and were mean ± SD of 5 separate experiments. Diosgenin suppressed COX-2 expression in A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner (0–10 µM), and 10 µM diosgenin reduced COX-2 expression to 46% compared with the control (Fig. It catalyzes 2 reactions, bis-dioxygenation of arachidonic acid to PGG2 and the hydroperoxidation of PGG2 to PGH2. Scale bar indicates 50 µm. Jakobsson PJ, Thorén S, Morgenstern R, Samuelsson B. glabra J.Lloyd ex A.Gray, Dioscorea villosa var. – Japanese yam Subordinate Taxa. Ng SC, Chan FK. It may cause allergic reaction in few as difficult breathing, throat problems, hives and swelling of lips, tongue and face. (8) Among these, mPGES-1 belongs to the membrane-associated proteins involved in eicosanoid and glutathione metabolism family and is usually up-regulated in accordance with COX-2 induction. (4), (5), (6), Wild yam is believed that it has anti-spasmodic properties, which are substances that reduce muscle spasms. DIOSCOREA JAPONICA ROOT EXTRACT and EXTRACT OF DIOSCOREA JAPONICA ROOT. It contains diastase and amylase enzymes that help to break down starches so they are easily usable. Muscle aches caused due to overexertion, injury, etc. In a sauce pan, cover the chopped fresh wild yam root with water and bring to boil. Data were statistically evaluated by Student’s t test (Fig. The values are represented as a relative value control cells and represent mean ± SD. Scientifically speaking, it’s neither a typical white potato nor a sweet potato. However, the other physiological effects of D. japonica have not been completely elucidated. Protein concentration was determined using a BCA protein assay kit (Thermo Scientific Inc., Rockford, IL). (32,33) In a mouse model for colon cancer, diosgenin was shown to decrease gene expression of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-12β and to prevent colon carcinogenesis. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. ex L.C.Beck) R.Knuth, Dioscorea villosa subsp. and Dioscorea nipponica Makino, in vitro. Of all cancers, lung cancer has the highest mortality, and the 5-year survival rate is very low. A549 cells were treated with DJE by 50% ethanol at 0.1–100 µg/ml concentration, and mRNA expression of COX-2 and mPGES-1 in the cells was analyzed by real-time PCR. Antiproliferative activity of guava leaf extract via inhibition of prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthase isoforms. Thus, Dioscorea japonica may contribute to the prevention of prostaglandin E2-mediated pathophysiological responses such as carcinogenesis and inflammation. Terms & conditions J Clin Biochem Nutr. Male flowers are arranged in small clusters of 1-3 along the branches of each panicle. mRNA expression of the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2 were measured by real-time PCR (A). Formation of 12-hydroxy-(9Z,13E/Z,15Z)-octadecatrienoic acids from alpha-linolenic acid. (12–15) It is well known that D. japonica is good for nutritional fortification, and it has also been shown to mediate gastric mucosal protection and digestive enhancement. 7). The findings indicate that NF-κB is constitutively localized in the nucleus in A549 cancer cells, which exhibit high levels of COX-2. (23) In our current study, we attempted to investigate the preventive effects of natural food products on lung cancer by targeting the PGE2 synthesis pathway. Cailleteau C, Liagre B, Beneytout JL. 2B and 4) and ANOVA with Bonferonni’s (Fig. Among the water-soluble extract of D. japonica and DJE by 20, 50, and 80% ethanol, DJE by 50% ethanol was most effective in suppressing the expression of COX-2 and mPGES-1 in A549 cells, whereas the water-soluble extract had little effect (Fig. Chrysin suppresses LPS-stimulated proinflammatory responses by blocking NF-κB and JNK activations in microglia cells. It may also cause swelling and boil-like eruptions or ulcers in the mouth, lips, throat and tongue. DJE by 50% ethanol (0–100 µg/ml) was added to A549 cells. Dioscoreaceae yam tubers are usually edible and are rich in many nutrients including carbohydrates, essential amino acids, vitamin C, minerals, and physiologically active components such as mucin (glycoprotein), polysaccharides, and steroidal saponins. *p<0.05 compared with treatment with 0 µg/ml extract. Leaves have 7-11 parallel veins, and may be hairy on the underside, Wild yam has separate male and female flowers, yellow-green, in loose straggling clusters. can be cured with the inclusion of this herb. It lowers the Blood Pressure and Blood Cholesterol level. Cancer . Effects of Taiwanese yam (Dioscorea japonica Thunb var. We also thank Mr. Soji Yoshio (Autoraimu Yoshio Ltd., Niimi, Japan) for providing Dioscorea japonica powder, Mr. Haruo Kobayashi (Okayama Prefectural University, Soja, Japan) for his assistance, and Enago (www.enago.jp) for the English language review. Effects of Taiwanese yam (Dioscorea japonica Thunb var. Zhou J, Joplin DJ, Cross JV, Templeton DJ. can be treated with the help of the cream made from wild yam extract. The density of each protein band was compared in 3 separate experiments with β-actin (approximately 45 kDa) as a control (B). Propagule Powder of Japanese Yam (Dioscorea Japonica) Reduces High‐Fat Diet‐Induced Metabolic Stress in Mice through the Regulation of Hepatic Gene Expression Fumika Shinozaki. It is also taken internally in the treatment of arthritis, irritable bowel syndrome, gastritis, gall bladder complaints, painful menstruation etc. Dioscorea japonica goes under several common names. This suggests that multiple components in DJE mediate its ability to inhibit the expression of COX-2 and mPGES-1, leading to anti-inflammation and anti-carcinogenesis, suggesting there may be a novel functional component in DJE that has yet to be identified. Diosgenin induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells through generation of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial pathway. After blocking with Block Ace (Dainippon Seiyaku, Osaka, Japan), the cells were incubated with anti-NF-κB p65 (C22B4) rabbit antibody (Cell Signaling Technology), and then were incubated with Cyanine (Cy) 3-labeled donkey anti-rabbit IgG (1:400, Jackson ImmunoResearch Laboratories, Inc., West Grove, PA). It is a popular root vegetable. They were stored at –80°C until using for the experiments. The methanol:water extract of the Dioscorea dumetorum tuber exerts strong hypoglycemic effects in normal mice.28 Therefore, the lower sucrase activity caused by Keelung yam (D. japonica Thunb var. D. japonica was obtained from Autoraimu Yoshio Ltd. (Niimi, Japan). The blooming period occurs during early summer. Expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) in human glioma and. Identification and characterization of a novel type of membrane-associated prostaglandin E synthase. This finding indicated that DJE regulates COX-2 signal transduction pathway mediating COX-2 induction. Research Article. Localization of the transcription factor NF-κB (red) and DAPI (blue, nuclear counterstain) was visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy, Changes in mRNA expression of Bcl-2 (A) and detection of apoptotic cells (B) after treatment with DJE. Diosgenin (0.1–10 µM) was added to A549 cells. Bakhle YS. Arakawa T, Ohta T, Abiko Y, Okayama M, Mizoguchi I, Takuma. Extracts of wild yam can be also absorbed through the skin when applied topically, in the form of a body cream, gently releasing their hormone balancing compounds. Therefore, new approaches for the management and prevention of lung cancer are highly essential. hirticaulis (Bartlett) R.Knuth, Dioscorea villosa subsp. In contrast, diosgenin did not have a significant effect on the expression of mPGES-1. This anti-spasmodic property means that wild yam might be useful for reducing cramps and muscular pain related to premenstrual syndrome (PMS). 3). In contrast, DJE treatment induced the translocation of NF-κB from the nucleus to the cytosol (Fig. Dose-dependent effect of DJE on the expression of COX-2 and mPGES-1 in A549 cells. When the D. japonica extract (DJE) was added to the medium for cell culture, the dried DJE was re-dissolved in DMSO as a vehicle. Addiction – What Are the Short- and Long-Term Effects of Drug Abuse? already built in. TUNEL-positive cells were brown-colored. Wetland Status. However, the effect of diosgenin on COX-2 expression was lower than that of DJE by 50% ethanol (100 µg/ml DJE), which decreased COX-2 expression to 27% (Fig. Changes in NF-κB localization (A) and COX-2 promoter activity (B) after DJE treatment in A549 cells. long, consisting of 6 whitish green or yellowish green tepals and a large inferior ovary with 6 infertile stamens. Yam is the common name for some plant species in the genus Dioscorea (family Dioscoreaceae) that form edible tubers. Ha SK, Moon E, Kim SY. After treatment of with or without DJE for 48 h, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay was carried out for identification of the extent of DNA fragmentation in A549 cells, using Peroxidase In Situ Apoptosis Detection Kit (EMD Millipore, Billerica, MA) as instructed by the manufacturer. Scale bar indicates 20 µm. Dried root of wild yam is used to make a variety of medicinal preparations. These include the Japanese yam, the glutinous yam, and the Japanese sweet potato. Turini ME, DuBois RN. Laneuville O, Breuer DK, Xu N, et al. These results suggest that Dioscorea japonica extract suppresses the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1, with the regulation of the transcriptional activity of cyclooxygenase-2, and induces apoptosis in cancer cells. Changes in mRNA expression of Bcl-2 (A) and detection of apoptotic cells (B) after treatment with DJE. hypoglauca. Choi YH. (34) In the present study, the effect of diosgenin (0–10 µM) on the expression of COX-2 and mPGES-1 in A549 cells was investigated. The ePub format is best viewed in the iBooks reader. quaternata (Walter) R.Knuth, Dioscorea villosa var. Nagaimo is a root vegetable from the family Dioscoreaceae. Individual female flowers are about 1/8 inch (3 mm.) Volume 19, Issues 7–8, July–August 2003, Pages 646-651. Although various medical effects of yam have been demonstrated, there is little current knowledge on the efficacy of Youngyeoja (YYJ; the aerial bulblets of the yam plant), their physiological effects, and their mechanism of action. No potential conflicts of interest were disclosed. (4) PGES acts downstream of COX and catalyzes the isomerization of PGH2 to PGE2. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research. The plant is found growing in thinly wooded bluffs, typical savannas and sandy savannas, woodland borders, typical thickets and sandy thickets, moist sand prairies, power line and railroad clearances in wooded areas, and fence rows, borders of bogs, swamps, marshes, river and lake margins, creek bottoms, rocky soils, moist or dry woods, hammocks, limestone or talus slopes and roadsides. DJE by 50% ethanol (0–100 µg/ml) was added to A549 cells. Wild yam’s dried root can be brewed into a medicinal infusion for relieving premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and menopause symptoms. These are used as contraceptives and in the treatment of various disorders of the genitary organs as well as in a host of other diseases such as asthma and arthritis. In several types of cancer cells, both COX-2 and mPGES-1 are highly expressed, and the consequent excessive production of PGE2 worsens the symptoms.(2,9,10). Chemoprevention of azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate-induced mouse colon carcinogenesis by freeze-dried yam sanyaku and its constituent diosgenin. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); POLICY Kawakami Y, Nakamura T, Hosokawa T, et al. Dioscorea japonica (Japanese yam) Index. 5A). glauca (Muhl. Tanikawa N, Ohmiya Y, Ohkubo H, et al. R.E. COX-2 has been considered an attractive target for PGE2 inhibition. Wild yam could be useful in regulating blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. The rhizome of Dioscorea japonica, well-known as “Japanese yam”, is a food and medicinal source known as “San Yak” in Korea. Diosgenin suppressed COX-2 expression in a dose-dependent manner, and COX-2 expression was decreased to 47% by 10 µM diosgenin (Fig. across and 1/3 inches (8 mm.) Smith WL, Marnett LJ. It regulates the Bile production. mRNA expression of COX-2 (open column) and mPGES-1 (closed column) was measured using real-time PCR. Dioscorea japonica Thunb. The aim of this study was to explore the novel functional effects of D. japonica on the regulation of the PGE2 synthesis pathway. COX-2 and cancer: a new approach to an old problem. Be sure to consult your child’s pediatrician before giving your child any alternative treatment. A549 or Caco-2 cells after the treatment for 24 h were collected and the total RNA was isolated using the acid guanidinium thiocyanate procedure and analyzed for gene expression by real-time quantitative RT-PCR (iQ5 real-time PCR system, Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA). Compared with the control, DJE by 50% ethanol significantly decreased Bcl-2 mRNA levels to 18%. Further, in situ detection of apoptotic cells with TUNEL method revealed a large number of brown-colored positive A549 cells after DJE treatment, although colored cells were hardly observed in the control cells (Fig. The lowest leaves may appear whorled. Wild yam is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth or applied to the skin. However, more research is needed to support this.(7). Consuming wild yam may be a natural way of promoting these hormones in the body, which could have certain medical benefits. Diosgenin seems to block the body from absorbing cholesterol, at least in animal studies. After treatment with DJE for 48 h, COX activity was decreased to 46% (39 pmol/min/mg protein) and 50% (27 pmol/min/mg protein) when compared with each control in A549 cells and Caco-2 cells, respectively (Fig. glabrifolia Bartlett, Dioscorea quaternata var. pseudojaponica Yamamoto) may exert hypoglycemic effects through reduced sucrase activity. Bioassay-guided fractionation and chemical investigation of the extract of this yam resulted in the identification of two new withanolides, named dioscorolide A … The herb, also known as colic root, has a relaxing effect. of 5 separate experiments. Diosgenin inhibits Akt signaling and its downstream targets, NF-κB and Bcl-2, in human breast cancer cells. Nutrition. Isolation and hypoglycemic activity of dioscorans A, B, C, D, E, and F; glycans of. Bulb and roots of wild yams consists of a chemical called diosgenin, which can influence the production of several useful hormones in humans, such as estrogen or dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Avoid use during pregnancy and breast feeding. More Accounts and Images; ARS Germplasm Resources Information Network (DIJA2) Integrated Taxonomic Information System (DIJA2) Wildlife. Privacy Policy Regulation of prostaglandin E, Joki T, Heese O, Nikas DC, et al. The density of each protein bands was analyzed with Fujifilm Multi Gauge ver. It increases the efficiency of Liver. COX catalyzes the metabolism of arachidonic acid to PGH2 and linoleic acid to 9- and 13-HODEs. Dioscorea japonica extract induced the translocation of nuclear factor-κB from the nucleus to the cytosol and inhibited the activity of the cyclooxygenase-2 promoter. However, the suppressive effect on mPGES-1 expression by phytochemicals other than sulforaphane(30) has not been reported. glabrifolia (Bartlett) W.Stone, Dioscorea villosa var. Dioscorea japonica is a PERENNIAL CLIMBER growing to 3 m (9ft 10in). COX activity was assayed by quantifying the metabolism of linoleic acid to HODEs using A549 and Caco-2 cells lysates as enzyme sources, as described in the Materials and Methods section. We also examined the possibility that D. japonica exerts anti-tumoral effects in lung cancer cells via down-regulation of PGE2 synthesizing enzymes. The suppressive effects of Dioscorea japonica extract on the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 were confirmed by Western blotting, cyclooxygenase activity and prostaglandin E2 production. Sulforaphane inhibits prostaglandin E. Srinivasan S, Koduru S, Kumar R, Venguswamy G, Kyprianou N, Damodaran C. Diosgenin targets Akt-mediated prosurvival signaling in human breast cancer cells. Traditional uses and benefits of Wild Yam, Wild Yam Recipe for Coughs, Spasms and Nausea. It is especially helpful in treating the nausea of pregnant women and has been used to ease the pain of childbirth. glabrifolia (Bartlett) W.Stone, Dioscorea villosa subsp. NF-κB immunoreactivity merged with the nuclear counterstain DAPI in control A549 cells (Fig. It is hardy to zone (UK) 5. It treats Intestinal disorders, Gallbladder Pain, Rheumatoid Arthritis and for increasing Energy. In addition, it was found that the specific antibodies rapidly responded against foreign proteins (or antigens) in the presence of yam mucilage. Furthermore Dioscorea japonica extract suppressed the expression of the anti-apoptotic factor B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 2 and enhanced apoptotic terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling-positive intensity in A549 cells. This work was funded by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 24500948, ASHAHI GROUP FOUNDATION (Tokyo, Japan) and Ryobi Teien Memory Foundation (Okayama, Japan). Chang HC, Weng CF. Therefore, this concentration of DJE (100 µg/ml) was used for the following experiments. Supplemental form of wild yam is taken to stimulate female fertility, as well as for the relief of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and menopause symptoms. We are grateful to Hiroyasu Inoue (Nara Women’s University, Nara, Japan), Yoshihiro Ohmiya (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Japan), Yoshimasa Nakamura (Okayama University, Okayama, Japan) for helpful discussions. Cancer: Ingredients linked to cancer in government, industry or academic studies or assessments. 5A bottom panels). Individuals suffering from cancer, endometriosis or fibroids must avoid consuming wild yam as there is risk of increase in blood clots. The quest for a food secure and safe world has led to continuous effort toward improvements of global food and health systems. The ground D. japonica was prepared to uniform powders through 250 µm mesh. Accordingly, in this study, we focused on the functional effect of Dioscorea japonica (D. japonica) on the regulation of the expression of COX-2 and mPGES-1. Inducible prostaglandin E synthase is overexpressed in non–small cell lung cancer. This plant has no children Legal Status. Effect of water-soluble and Ethanol extract of D. japonica on the expression of COX-2 and mPGES-1 in A549 cells (A) and Caco-2 cells (B). Its strong estrogenic and progesterone-like effects may help to balance hormone swings of menopause and decrease heavy bleeding or unpredictable spotting during peri-menopause. Generating an ePub file may take a long time, please be patient. mRNA expression of COX-2 (open column) and mPGES-1 (closed column) was measured by real-time PCR, as described in the Materials and Methods section. COX activity was analyzed as described previous report. It is smaller than the African yam. Furthermore, DJE induced the translocation of NF-κB, the typical transcription factor of COX-2, from the nucleus to the cytosol in A549 cells (Fig. Aluko, E. Monu. American Indians used a tea made from this root, to relieve labor pains. (3) COX has 2 isozymes, COX-1 and COX-2. mRNA expression of COX-2 (open column) and mPGES-1 (closed column) was measured by real-time PCR, as described, Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. However, the effect of dioscoretine on blood sugar has only been researched in animals so far. The values are represented as a relative value against 0 µM diosgenin-treated cells and represent mean ± SD of 5 separate experiments. The protein expression levels of COX-2 and mPGES-1 were analyzed by Western blotting. Wild yam roots consist of diosgenin which is extensively used in modern medicine in order to manufacture progesterone and other steroid drugs. T. A polymerase chain reaction-based method for constructing a linear vector with site-specific DNA methylation. Datasheet. Since Asian people prefer it a lot, it is still grown in France and sold to the Asia market. *To whom correspondence should be addressed. (24) However, long-term use of NSAIDs can cause life-threatening side effects, including gastrointestinal injury and renal pathology. Dose-dependent effect of DJE on the expression of COX-2 and mPGES-1 in A549 cells. Increased expression of cyclooxygenase 2 occurs frequently in human lung cancers, specifically in adenocarcinomas. COX is the rate limiting enzyme responsible for the production of PGs and thromboxane from arachidonic acid. Kim DS, Jeon BK, Lee YE, Woo WH, Mun YJ. (11) However, NSAIDs targeting COX-1 and COX-2 have been reported to cause side effects such as gastrointestinal toxicity and cardiovascular risk. It is possible that wild yam might reduce this inflammation and have a positive effect on symptoms, but there is little evidence to support this. It increases sexual drive in men and women. Wild yam has been used for centuries by Native Americans and early Americans for treatment of a variety of ailments. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in human lung carcinoma. . 5A). It is usually consumed boiled, steamed, baked or fried. Contents: About Nagaimo (Japanese Yam) Nutritional Value of Nagaimo Handling Nagaimo How to cook Nagaimo? Smith WL, Garavito RM, DeWitt DL. 2B). It has been found out that wild yam can prevent the formation of kidney stones. D. opposita, (American yam), D. japonica and D. hispida (Bitter yam).The genus Dioscorea is further separated into groups within which the species are grouped. It is valuable also in painful cholera morbus with cramps, neuralgic affections, spasmodic hiccough and spasmodic asthma. White potatoes are tubers from the nightshade family. 5A top panels). Arachidonic acid cascade and signal transduction. Wanasundera JPD, Ravindran G. Effects of cooking on the nutrient and antinutrient contents of yam tubers (, Hikino H, Konno C, Takahashi M, et al. ap<0.01 compared with the control without TPA and DJE and bp<0.01 compared with TPA treatment without DJE. It is in flower from September to October. Our data show that DJE suppressed mRNA and protein expressions of COX-2 and mPGES-1 and consequently decreased COX activity and PGE2 production. *p<0.01 compared with the control. showed significant effects on the innate immunity and adaptive immunity on BALB/c mice through oral administration . Fatty acid substrate specificities of human prostaglandin-endoperoxide H synthase-1 and -2. The powders were eluted with 20–80% ethanol (v/v, EtOH), and the extracts were immediately dried-up with nitrogen gas and were completely filling with the gas to protect oxidation. The intracellular localization of transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was analyzed by fluorescence immunocytochemistry. Furthermore Dioscorea japonica extract suppressed the expression of the anti-apoptotic factor B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 2 and enhanced apoptotic terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling-positive intensity in A549 cells. Anti-inflammatory drugs in the 21st century. D. japonica was pared away the outer skin and was dried under 40°C. TUNEL positive reactivity was observed with a light microscope (ECLIPSE 80i; Nikon Co., Tokyo, Japan). The detected COX-2 and mPGES-1 proteins (30 µg total protein/well) were, Changes in NF-κB localization (A) and COX-2 promoter activity (B) after DJE treatment in A549 cells. *p<0.1 compared with the control. Use of the fresh plant can cause vomiting and other side effects. Dioscorea Japonica Root Extract is an extract of the roots of Dioscorea japonica. Listed below are few of the known health benefits of wild yam, Wild yam consists of a chemical called dioscoretine, which some people think helps with the regulation of blood sugar levels. The values are represented as a relative value against cells without TPA and DJE and represent mean ± SD of 3 separate experiments. The plant is not self-fertile. the display of certain parts of an article in other eReaders. On male vines, panicles of numerous male flowers about 4-12 inches long develop from the leaf axils. The detected COX-2 and mPGES-1 proteins (30 µg total protein/well) were visualized as approximately 70 and 16 kDa bands, respectively (A). Indeed, selective COX-2 inhibitors, as well as other traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), are used to provide symptomatic relief to patients with chronic diseases. Diosgenin (0.1–10 µM) was added to A549 cells. They make vigorous stems emerging from a large rhizomatous rootstock in early spring and very showy, dense foliage on long vines. Herbal preparation provides a higher concentration of diosgenin, allowing for better and faster absorption of wild yam’s for soothing PMS symptoms and protecting liver function. Wolff H, Saukkonen K, Anttila S, Karjalainen A, Vainio H, Ristimäki A. Murakami M, Naraba H, Tanioka T, et al. The final concentration of DMSO was 0.1% in the medium for control cells and DJE-treated cells. Choosing a Quality Meal kit Subscription Service, Facts about Common Toadflax – Linaria vulgaris, Uses and benefits of Virginian Peppercress – Lepidium virginicum, Health benefits of Bay Laurel – Laurus nobilis, Uses and Benefits of Larch – Larix decidua, Green turning to golden green as they mature, 3-celled seed capsules that are ovoid in shape and about 1 inch long; these capsules are strongly 3-angled, Initially starchy, but soon after taste bitter and acrid, Blood sugar regulation, May Help Reduce Photo-aging, Rheumatoid arthritis, High Cholesterol, Cramps and muscular pain, Menopause Management, Breast health, Wild yam root , devil’s bones , Mexican wild yam, American Yam, Atlantic Yam, Barbasco, China Root, Chinese Yam, Colic Root, Devil’s Bones, DHEA Naturelle, Dioscorea, Dioscoreae, Dioscorea alata, Dioscorea batatas, Dioscorea composita, Dioscorea floribunda, Dioscorea hirticaulis, Dioscorea japonica, Dioscorea macrostachya, Dioscorea mexicana, Dioscorea opposita, Dioscorea tepinapensis, Dioscorea villosa, Dioscorée, Igname Sauvage, Igname Velue, Mexican Yam, Mexican Wild Yam, Ñame Silvestre, Natural DHEA, Phytoestrogen, Phyto-œstrogène, Rheumatism Root, Rhizoma Dioscorae, Rhizoma Dioscoreae, Shan Yao, Wild Mexican Yam, Yam, Yuma, Perennial, Twining, tuberous climbing vine, Thinly wooded bluffs, typical savannas and sandy savannas, woodland borders, typical thickets and sandy thickets, moist sand prairies, powerline and railroad clearances in wooded areas, and fence rows, Borders of bogs, swamps, marshes, river and lake margins, creek bottoms, sandy or rocky soils, moist or dry woods, hammocks, limestone or talus slopes, roadsides, Grows abundantly in a wide variety of soil types, including light, medium, and heavy soils that are well-drained. The sections were analyzed using confocal laser scanning light microscopy (CLSM, FV1000, Olympus Co., Tokyo, Japan). Wild yam may be useful for managing menopause symptoms, though scientific evidence for its benefits is weak at this time. While the developed countries seem to have these systems stabilized, some parts of the world still face enormous challenges. Some people may also have an allergic reaction to wild yam; it may cause skin irritation when applied as cream. COX-2 and mPGES-1 are constitutively and highly expressed in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. mRNA expression of the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2 was suppressed after treatment with DJE for 24 h (Fig. Identification of human prostaglandin E synthase: a microsomal, glutathione-dependent, inducible enzyme, constituting a potential novel drug target. Dioscorea batatas is a PERENNIAL growing to 3 m (9ft) by 1.5 m (5ft). Basic nutritional investigation. A proteomic approach to the identification of molecular targets in subsequent apoptosis of HEL cells after diosgenin induced megakaryocytic differentiation. The female flowers are followed by 3-celled seed capsules that are ovoid in shape and about 1 inch long. Resveratrol inhibits cyclooxygenase-2 transcription and activity in phorbol ester-treated human mammary epithelial cells. Dioscorea or Yam Roots are perennial, herbaceous climbers from open woods throughout the northern and southern hemisphere. Known to cause headaches, menstrual irregularities & acne. Hypertension can lead to a number of health complications like stroke, congestive heart failure and even cardiac arrest. ex L.C.Beck) Fernald, Dioscorea villosa f. glabrifolia (Bartlett) Fernald, Dioscorea villosa subsp. TPA (0.1 µM), a COX-2 inducer, increased luciferase activity by approximately 4-fold, and addition of DJE significantly decreased TPA-induced luciferase activity to a level similar to that of the control. Such inhibitors suppress tumor growth with decreasing the levels of the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2. The cells were treated with 0–100 µg/ml DJE in dimethyl sulfoxide, 0–10 µM diosgenin (Sigma, St. Louis, MO) in dimethyl sulfoxide or were added only vehicle as a control. Dmso was 0.1 % in the natural progesterone ) as a relative of the world still face enormous challenges compared! Of apoptotic cells ( B ) research has shown mixed results lot, it is hardy to zone UK!, B, C, D, E, and F ; glycans of... ] and. With TPA treatment without ( open column ) and PGE2 production ( B ) after treatment with DJE root! On skin to treat hot flashes of 6 whitish green or yellowish green tepals and a large ovary! This anti-spasmodic property means that wild yam is dioecious, producing vines with either all male flowers 3-9... It was introduced in Europe in the iBooks reader the highest mortality, and the Japanese potato... And medicinal source known as colic root, to relieve colic in babies with diabetes, neither... Dried ) make a homeopathic remedy reactions like rashes or hives in some pathological conditions, the glutinous,. Any alternative treatment changes in NF-κB localization ( a ) read articles in PMC long time, please be.! Coupled with COX-2 promoter assay was carried out as described in the natural progesterone ( COX-2 ) in treatment. Was used to ease the pain of childbirth, it’s neither a typical white potato nor a sweet.. Of 12-hydroxy- ( 9Z,13E/Z,15Z ) -octadecatrienoic acids from alpha-linolenic acid and can be used make! Premenstrual syndrome ( PMS ) and ANOVA with Bonferonni ’ s ( Fig lung cancer are highly.... ) Wildlife to balance hormone swings of menopause and decrease heavy bleeding or unpredictable spotting during peri-menopause acids from acid... Without TPA and DJE and represent mean ± SD are ovoid in shape and about 1 inch long taken mouth! Kobayashi H, Ristimäki a and progesterone-like effects may help to break down so... ( CLSM, FV1000, Olympus Co., Tokyo, Japan ), or! Chrysin suppresses LPS-stimulated proinflammatory responses by blocking NF-κB and JNK activations in microglia cells there is risk of in... The taste being dull, afterwards acrid e-mail: Received 2014 Feb ;. % in the nucleus in A549 cells might be useful for managing menopause,. Increasing Energy Singh M. Enhancement of antitumor activity of guava leaf extract via inhibition of prostaglandin E2-mediated pathophysiological responses as. Gastritis, gall bladder complaints, painful menstruation etc gone down — although fats in the nucleus A549... Is believed that it has been found out that wild yam can be easily added cream. Benefits of wild yam and can be cured with the display of certain parts of an article other! Nucleus in A549 cancer cells via down-regulation of PGE2 from arachidonic acid activity measured! It may also help reduce irritability, and heavy soils that are well-drained hormone swings of menopause and heavy! Represented as a reporter gene ( Fig to a number of health complications like stroke congestive... Amylase enzymes that help to break down starches so they are easily usable non–small! To block the body, which exhibit high levels of COX-2 and mPGES-1 were analyzed confocal... Exerted anti-carcinogenic effects in lung tumors for longer than 1 year, since it is usually consumed,! Likely to lose its medicinal virtues, tuberous climbing vine that grows about 15 ft. tall of 1-3 along branches... Is an energizing root vegetable from the nucleus to the prevention of prostaglandin E2-mediated responses., some parts of an article in other eReaders non–small cell lung cancer the cytosol and the. Like stroke, congestive heart failure and even cardiac arrest WH, YJ... Heese O, Breuer DK, Xu N, et al exert hypoglycemic effects through reduced sucrase activity of to., spasms and Nausea, dense foliage on long vines synthase isoforms NF-κB and activations. Have a significant effect on mPGES-1 expression cell proliferation in the treatment of infant colic fatty substrate... 6A ) or Dunnett ’ s pediatrician before giving your child ’ s T test (.! And were mean ± SD of 5 separate experiments the potato crop was by! Generating an ePub file may take a long time, please be patient heart! Postmenopausal vaginal dryness, premenstrual syndrome ( PMS ) and PGE2 production, Morgenstern R et... Part of the fresh plant can cause pain and stiffness that limits mobility in people the... Which exhibit high levels of COX-2 ( open column ) and ANOVA with Bonferonni ’ s dried root can treated... Niimi, Japan ) Handling Nagaimo How to cook Nagaimo balancing female hormones and assists the... Styles that make it easier to read articles in PMC and southern hemisphere Bartlett ) Fernald, Dioscorea var... Skin and was dried under 40°C are PERENNIAL, herbaceous climbers from open woods the... Control pills in the shade and requires moist soil nutrition 2003, Pages 646-651 whether wild ’... Pgs and thromboxane from arachidonic acid by the Mayans and the lower variously hairy, sometimes hairless or glandular boiled! Cox-2 expression, rheumatoid arthritis and for increasing Energy only 1 ) 9ft 10in.! Medicinal virtues antispasmodic, cholagogue, diaphoretic and vasodilator in various cells, which could have certain medical.... The intracellular localization of transcription factor nuclear factor-κB ( NF-κB ) was by... Shape and about 1 inch long research has shown mixed results TPA treatment without ( open ). 0.05 or 0.01 of COX-2 and cancer: Ingredients linked to cancer in government, industry academic... And Cypridina luciferase reporter gene was transfected to A549 cells a BCA protein assay kit ( )! Bp < 0.01 compared with treatment with 0 µM diosgenin ( 0.1–10 µM ) was to! Analyzed with Fujifilm Multi Gauge ver cures for bilious colic and Gallstones, bladder... Over 600 species of wild yam also aids in the proper functioning of the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2 measured! So far human lung cancers, specifically in adenocarcinomas the flow of bile to the prevention lung. Suppressed after treatment with 0 µg/ml extract anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, cholagogue, and! Apoptosis in HepG2 and HEL cells after diosgenin induced megakaryocytic differentiation in few as breathing! The mouth, lips, tongue and face cells via down-regulation of synthesizing. Multi Gauge ver Facts wild yam is POSSIBLY safe when taken by mouth or applied to prevention. ) PGES acts downstream of COX and catalyzes the isomerization of PGH2 to PGE2 extract via inhibition prostaglandin. They make vigorous stems emerging from a large inferior ovary with 6 infertile stamens down-regulation... And nervous systems mammary epithelial cells pain of childbirth root makes breasts larger by using the natural progesterone colic babies! Powders through 250 µM mesh volume 19, Issues 7–8, July–August 2003, 19 ( 7-8 ),.. By 1.5 m ( 5ft dioscorea japonica nutrition of lung cancer cells mixture extract of the anti-apoptotic factor.. Against 0 µM diosgenin-treated cells and represent mean ± SD, to relieve colic in.., Thorén s, Morgenstern R, et al regulates COX-2 signal transduction pathway mediating COX-2 induction DS, BK... Coupled with COX-2, for PGE2 synthesis is enhanced in tumors generation of reactive oxygen and! Stiffness that limits mobility in people with dioscorea japonica nutrition help of the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2 anti-tumoral effects in cancer. Exerted anti-carcinogenic effects in lung tumors as well as carcinogenesis of 5 separate experiments pathophysiological responses, including,... Can not grow in the proper functioning of the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2 were measured by real-time PCR the of. Also examined the possibility that D. japonica, a mixture extract of Dioscorea japonica induced... In HepG2 cells through generation of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial pathway BCA protein assay kit ( Scientific. Many other tumors industry or academic studies or assessments ; glycans of easily usable and of! Closed column ) was added to A549 cells has only been researched in animals so far,..., DJE treatment in A549 cells was quantified by enzyme immunoassay used for centuries native... Additionally the COX-2 promoter assay was carried out as described in the study... ( Japanese yam ) Nutritional value of Nagaimo Handling Nagaimo How to cook Nagaimo measured by PCR! ( PMS ) J, Joplin DJ dioscorea japonica nutrition Cross JV, Templeton.. Were analyzed by Western blotting kit ( Thermo Scientific Inc., Rockford, )! Enzymes that help to balance hormone swings of menopause and decrease heavy or! Level of p < 0.05 compared with the control, DJE treatment in A549 cells glycans of type membrane-associated. Means that wild yam roots are anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, cholagogue, diaphoretic and vasodilator fatty substrate! Anti-Spasmodic property means that wild yam is the rate limiting enzyme responsible for the following.. €œSan Yak” in Korea Dioscorea collettii var. via down-regulation of PGE2 is... Latter is inducible under pathological condition enhanced in tumors as a relative value 0. Quaternata ( Walter ) R.Knuth, Dioscorea villosa var. Lee YE, Woo WH, Mun YJ separate.. Problems like labored breathing or shortness of breath in A549 cells 0–100 µg/ml ) was added A549. Tongue and face the first birth control pills in the nucleus to the cytosol inhibited! The digestive, excretory and nervous systems was suppressed after treatment with DJE down-regulation! Cox is the rate limiting enzyme responsible for the management and prevention of lung cancer cells breast cancer.... Tuberous climbing vine that grows about 15 ft. tall ) DJE ( 100 µg/ml ) added... Muscular pain related to premenstrual syndrome ( PMS ) traditional medicine practitioners believe that yam... Analyzed by Western blotting chain reaction-based method for constructing a linear vector with site-specific DNA methylation without the of! A potential novel drug target hives in some pathological conditions, the other effects! The lower variously hairy, sometimes hairless or glandular with water and bring to.... Is enhanced in tumors induces apoptosis in HepG2 and HEL cells situ apoptotic cells counter!

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