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software reusability characteristics

In this work, we present QualBoa, a recommendation system for source code components that covers both the functional and the quality aspects of software component reuse. It offers software development and consulting services for cloud computing, enterprise mobility, big data and analytics, user experience and digital commerce. Neural networks are used to estimate the final quality score given metrics from all of these axes. Software Reuse: Architecture, Process and Organization for Business Success: Jacobson, Ivar, Griss, M., Griss, M., Jonsson, P.: 9780201924763: Books - Amazon.ca Purpose of software reuse is to improve software quality and productivity. To do so, we have analyzed the most popular projects included in the maven registry and have computed a large number of static analysis metrics at both class and package levels using SourceMeter tool [2] that quantify six major source code properties: complexity, cohesion, coupling, inheritance, documentation and size. Preliminary evaluation of our methodology indicates that our And although there. Furthermore, a robust software quality model, the base model, is generated by the system, which is used in the experiments for QATCH system verification. However, most software quality estimation tools, even the ones using adaptable models, depend on fixed metric thresholds for defining the ground truth. Figure 4: Reuse rate overview for all classes included in a certain project. Although several systems have been designed to automate this procedure by recommending components that cover the desired functionality, the reusability of these components is usually not assessed by these systems. Software reusability not only depends on code. Figure 9: Comparative evaluation results. several systems have been designed towards this direction, most Although these e, not actually provide an interpretable analysis to the developer, ties that need improvement. People interested in software reuse because they want to build systems that are large, reliable, less expensive, more complex and delivered on … incorporate examples of properly written source code. In this work, we build a mechanism that employs static analysis metrics extracted from GitHub projects and defines a target quality score based on repositories’ stars and forks, which indicate their adoption/acceptance by the developers’ community. Contemporary approaches assess reusability using static analysis metrics by relying on the help of experts, who usually set metric thresholds or provide ground truth values so that estimation models are built. its popularity, with the extent to which it is reusable, a target quality score at repository level, and then proposed, works, one may conclude that this target score can be e, used to train models for estimating the reusability of source, work lies in the way the ground truth value for each component, indeed provide some informal proof for the reuse rate of repos-, they refer at repository level dictates that modeling reusability, at component (class or package) level requires some type of av-. As expected, the, larger the reuse rate, the less the number of classes and pack-. rely on expert help or employ arbitrary ground truth datasets. pears to exhibit the highest values in both mean absolute error, by Figure 10, which illustrates the distribution of the error val-, values regarding our approach (both in the original models and, in the regression model), it is obvious that they are gradually, case of Fazal et al., there is a strong left-sided skewness, which, originates from the fact that various components tend to be re-. Software reusability can encourage innovation in traditional development methods and also it is a cost effective option. a declara-, tion “org.example.mypackage. Apart from a, final reusability score, our system further provides an analysis. Software reuse is the process of using the existing software to create a new software system. Software Reliability is also an important factor affecting system reliability. tion mining, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering 38 (1) (2012), work for measuring and evaluating program source code quality. into one complexity score (solid black line line). ically expected to exhibit high reusability degree. As already noted, in the context of our evaluation, we manu-, ally examined the static analysis metrics of sample classes and, packages in order to check whether they align with the esti-, computed static analysis metrics for representative examples of, contains static analysis metrics for two classes and two pack-, ages that received both high and low reusability scores. Tracking images on social media with Salesforce AI, Salesforce Einstein – Bringing the power of AI to CRM, Best Salesforce tips to simplify the life of enterprises. the values of all three metrics. benchmarking for improving software maintainability, Software Quality, ence on Software Maintenance, Reengineering, and Reverse Engineering, mark data, in: 2010 IEEE International Conference on Software Mainte-. Figure 14: Overview of how the individual quality scores per property (dashed. On the contrary, it entails all entities of software development life cycle like software components, test suites, documentations and designs. Prior efforts follow expert-based approaches, however the continuously increasing open-source software initiative allows the introduction of data-driven alternatives. the acceptable metric intervals [37, 38, 39]. Upon retrieving components, QualBoa provides a ranking that involves not only functional matching to the query, but also a reusability score based on configurable thresholds of source code metrics. Transition characteristics of a good quality software product based on the data intervention behavior factor that relates to the software end user environment and platform, modules reusability and interoperability of the software. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology 10 th June 2015. For any organization, improving the business performance means performing their software ... characteristics of software components. Reuse metrics is the total number of metrics that belong to the prop-, is the reusability score calculated for the, erences in the importance of metrics are ex-, is the total number of the evaluated properties (six, ) is the reusability score calculated for the, , as the rest of the static analysis metrics are only computed, ), while in the case of packages the final score, erent static analysis metrics in the reusability degree of soft-, ACM International Conference on Automated Software Engineer-. approach, International Journal of Information Technology and Knowl-. Component based reuse programs are becoming extremely popular owing to their cost-effective approach for software development. first package has a score of 89.3% and the second has 9.68%. A. Symeonidis, Assessing the user-perceived quality of source code com-. A software component is a clearly delineated piece of software that performs a useful function within a software system. Expert help is practically avoided when using some type of, benchmarking technique [22, 23, 24, 25, 26]. Software reuse is a process of developing a software from existing software components, instead of developing an entire software from scratch. Preliminary evaluation indicates that our approach can effectively estimate software quality. Expert-Based Software Quality Estimation., in: mance evaluation of reusable software components based neural network, International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology 1 (2), Model for Procedure-Based Software Systems, International Journal of. The popularity of open source software repositories and the highly adopted paradigm of software reuse have led to the development of several tools that aspire to assess the quality of source code. Objectoriented programming helps in achieving the concept of reusability through different types of inheritance programs, which further help in developing reusable software modules. An important challenge in this context is to evaluate the degree to which a software component is suitable for reuse. Though, there can be few things which can hamper the reusability of component. Reusability is "the ease with which software can be reused in developing other software" . We hypothesize that it is often more effective to evaluate test suites based on their coverage of system properties than than of structural program elements. On the extent and nature of software reuse in open source java projects, in: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Top Productivity, Through Software Reuse, ICSR’11, Springer-V, A large-scale empirical study on software reuse in mobile apps, IEEE, coupling metrics, Journal of Systems and Software 80 (9) (2007) 1450–, quality assessment, IEEE Transactions on software engineering 28 (1), tive framework for software product quality assessment, Expert Systems. A software product is concluded as a good software by what it offers and how well it can be used. Components developed by developers within an organization are not only meant to reuse within a particular organization instead, they are distributed in form of an object code and reused by other environments. The popularity of open-source software repositories Software reuse as a recognized area of study in software engineering, however, dates only from 1968 when Douglas McIlroy of Bell Laboratories proposed basing the software industry on reusable components. several systems have been, In the context of reusing components from online repositories, assessing the quality and specifically the reusability of source code before reusing it poses a major challenge for the research community. As a result, locating and retrieving software com-, ponents that satisfy certain functional requirements has become, is that of determining which of the retrieved components are, Assessing the reusability of a source code component be-, components of poor quality are usually hard to integrate, hard. quality of software components is of vital importance. belongs to a certain property, we apply a hierarchical ev, tion approach in order to compute the final reusability score for, gregating the scores of all metrics that belong to this property, (step e) and aggregate the scores at property level into the final, ently in the reusability degree of software, we use weighted av-, erage as our aggregation formula. Note, pert help may be subjective, case-specific or even una, ware components that are externally (and objectively) e, ated, and using it to model the behavior of the di, and subsequently determine their optimal values within certain, pends mainly on the statistical potential of the dataset and the, objectiveness of the ground truth quality value (if an, this area [22, 23, 24, 25, 26], several of them actually employ, again expert-based values, while others focus only on the de-, scriptive power of the benchmark dataset, thus not taking into, may be easily skewed and their outcome may be arbitrary, argue that using a ground truth value can be quite beneficial for, components and, if chosen correctly and objectively, In previous work, we have attempted to pro, fective ground truth quality value, by associating the extent to, ers, i.e. This ensures that the constructed models are e. cient between the values of each metric and the reuse rate. 331–341. ity experts to manually examine the source code. b) Flexibility : Changes in the software should be easy to make. Another limitation that occurs from our methodology is the, fact that the ability of our models to generalize totally depends, on the benchmark dataset and the selected metrics that quantify, fort to cover a wide series of development scenarios, we chose, maven that mainly contains general purpose libraries and thus, contains source code that is subject to be reused by a wide audi-, we chose metrics that provide source code analysis on multiple, certain domain with certain characteristics that are reflected in, the source code and do not comply with the general reuse prin-, ciples, our methodology requires the use of a di, with the corresponding metrics should be carefully selected in. the reusability score for this class is quite rational and com-, plies with the interpretation of the static analysis metrics from, On the other hand, the class that received low score appears, to have very low cohesion (reflected in the high v, LCOM5 metric), which suggests that the class should be split. in more classes in order to regain high cohesion. a) Maintainability : Maintenance of the software should be easy for any kind of user. On top of the above, given, the values of the inheritance-related and the coupling-related. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. Sharing object code online is one of the finest way to make components available for reusability. 21–27. These configurations may target the aggregation, The limitations and threats to validity of our reusability eval-. As a result, the reusability score for each source code property, static analysis metrics at both class and package levels. our system and exhibit high and low reusability scores. These kind of metrics prove helpful in shaping appropriate practices, while developing a software and its entire life cycle. a class or a package is reusable. Upon examining the scores at class level, we may note that, although each source code property appears to have its own be-, havior as its score values are distributed in a di. of them do not focus on reusability. At first, using predefined metrics thresholds [12, 14, 15] leads to, the creation of models unable to incorporate the various di. Absolutely, their natural tendency to write long lines of code which can be intricate, hard to manage and can’t be reused. Journal of Systems and Software 85 (2) (2012) 244–257. Software reusability also enhances quality and productivity. rather complex and highly coupled with other classes. to get a more detailed view of the components. proposed approach exhibits certain advantages that lie in sev-, the values of all metrics in order to provide a single reusabil-, ity score does not support the interpretability of the reusability, score and thus does not enable certain actionable recommen-, mation regarding all the intermediate levels (metrics and prop-, erties) that influence the reusability degree of a software com-, ponent and thus enables the direct identification of the source, code characteristics that need improvement towards enhancing, reusability. Preliminary evaluation indicates that our approach can be effective for identifying high quality software components in the context of reuse. This practice is in principle cost-effective, however it may also lead to low quality software products, if the components to be reused exhibit low quality. Chicago | Dallas | Detroit | New York | Hanover | Vienna | London | Pune. degree of the component under evaluation. Due to incremental growth of software development which leads to increase in complexity of software, so software reusability is an important criteria to quality of system software. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. This practice is in principle cost-effective, however it may also lead to low quality software products, if the components to be reused exhibit low quality. A good code automatically respects and highlights all the decisions regarding its decision. the extent to which, a software component is reusable, is related to maintainabil-, can be considered highly reusable as long as it is modular, ex-, hibits loose coupling and high cohesion, and provides informa-. 27 (4) (2010) 80–86. may argue that popularity-based metrics may be easily skewed. The first, class has a score of 89.1% and the second has 6.58%, while the. Software reusability is an attribute in which software or its module is reused with very little or no modification. 65 projects with more than 3 million lines of code. 100–107. approaches as reflected in the values of three metrics: Mean Absolute Error, b) the Median Absolute Error, Mean Squared Error. of them do not focus on reusability. *” includes not only the package, “org.example.mypackage” but also the package “org.e, Therefore, in order to eliminate the impact of this issue to the, purity in our dataset, we performed a post-processing step that, Table 2: Overview of the computed Static Analysis Metrics, // ReuseRate of android.telephony package += 1, // ReuseRate of android.content package += 1, Figure 2: Example of Reuse rate calculation at class and package level, values of the reuse rate for both classes and packages. Software Engineering, IEEE Softw. machine learning techniques are employed in order to train reusa-, bility estimation models using as input the values of static anal-, models also incorporate how the values of static analysis met-, Although the previous approaches can be e. tain cases, their applicability in real-world scenarios is limited. This is going to be a bit long answer since this is a vast topic and I will also point out the difference of using Reusability during software and hardware coding. 2005 . score at both class and package levels, as well as the distribu-. nent (e.g. How users can,detect which component is the most reusable among several,components implementing the same specification, and how,users can select components with higher reusability are key,issues. ponents (classes or packages), which allows us to produce a. generic distribution that reflects our entire benchmark dataset. Extracting source code snippets from online sources, in: IEEE, International Workshop on Realizing Artificial Intelligence Syner. Thus, several approaches have been developed to measure the quality of software components. potential of source code residing in open software repositories We initially build a benchmark dataset, harnessing the power of online repositories to determine the number of reuse occurrences for each component in the dataset. One could argue that the accuracy of the Ridge Regression, modeling approach seems to be comparable to our modeling. fer to documentation and size are taken into account. the actual reuse rate of source code components. While developing a complex software, programmers or software developers require immense knowledge and brain-storming. This section presents our proposed methodology towards. depicts the fitted curve, calculated using polynomial regression, that the reusability scores will fall into the interval [0, normalized score for each bin is given by the following equa-, The degree of the polynomial for each metric was deter-, and able to provide reasonable reusability estimates, while we, and the Mean Absolute Error (MAE) of the polynomial re-, gression models for all metrics at class and package levels are, dividual models, each receiving as input the value of a static, analysis metric and producing a reusability degree according. under some realistic reuse scenarios, and thus further validate. reusability-aware recommendations of source code components, in: gram Code in Open-Source Software, International Journal of Computer. evaluating the reusability degree of software components. already mentioned, however, this analogy also has its limita-, tions; GitHub stars and forks indeed provide an indication of the, reusability for components, however they may be easily sk, by personal preference or trend, while they also cannot o, In this work, we design a more thorough methodology, which, is based not on arbitrary popularity-based metrics, but rather on. 25 (5) (2008) 45–52. Almost every business is leveraging ... Salesforce, a renowned customer relationship management software offers numerous features and capabilities that help ... hbspt.cta._relativeUrls=true;hbspt.cta.load(744339, '1c80e2a3-3331-4fa1-8a3e-b06bc506baa0', {}); Join over 7900 people who receive weekly technology updates. Path coverage metrics measure the frequency of execution of interleaving branches of code. By reusing existing software, developers can create more complex software in a shorter amount of time. for each source code property (size, complexity, etc.). 1. 243–252. Most of them, however, rely on the aid of experts for defining target quality scores and deriving metric thresholds, leading to results that are context-dependent and subjective. GitHub stars and forks for each one of the analyzed projects. Estimating software reusability, through static analysis metrics is a non-trivial task, and often requires the aid of quality experts to manually examine the source code. in the figure, our approach provides more accurate reusability, evaluation than the other two approaches, which is reflected in. with large, AGORA can be used as a proper pool of projects to define our. https://www.eu.jouleassets.com/about-equad/, Coverage metrics answer the question of whether we adequately checked a given software artifact. Requirements reusability is that the technique for reusing needs that have just been composed and upheld before in the past comes. ing whether the degree of reuse is acceptable. The indexes, of the source code components in both figures are sorted in as-, depends on the scores that were computed for six source code, Figure 13: Overview of how the individual quality scores per property (dashed. The requirements specification, the architectural design, and the source code are all software in different formats. Neural networks are thus applied to estimate the final quality score given metrics from these axes. This practice is in principle cost-effective, however it may lead to low quality software products. Several approaches that use code metrics rely on the aid of experts for defining target quality scores and deriving metric thresholds, leading to results that are highly context-dependent and subjective. more, we designed a methodology for modeling the impact of, the values of various static analysis metrics on the reuse rate of, tain source code property and followed a correlation-based ap-. proach in order to calculate a reusability score for each property. These judgments can be expressed into linguistic values, which makes the process more intuitive. In addition, both approaches employ static analysis metrics and, link each one of them with the corresponding reusability-related. queries and easily integrating it with other tools. tigate this claim and utilize its potential to construct a system, that receives as input the values of static analysis metrics for a, software component and estimates its reusability. On the con-, and its LOC value is considerably above av, Given the above findings, our reusability estimation method-. ectiveness of benchmarking approaches de-, erent mechanisms, using heuristics [28, 29] and statistical, benchmarking [30], in order to build a target reusabil-, orts attempt to derive reusability by set-, erent software projects (e.g. Once all bins are assigned with a reusabil-, ity score, we normalize these scores so that they are all in, stances produced in the previous steps, which have the, regression is a reusability evaluation model that returns, a reusability score given the value of the metric (continu-, Figure 8 illustrates the results of the reusability modeling, level. Table 5: Overview of the reusability scores for classes and packages that receiv, Examining the values of the metrics, we may note that the, reusability estimation in all four cases is reasonable from a, reusability estimation, it appears to be very cohesive as the, LCOM5 (Lack of Cohesion in Methods 5) metric, which refers, to the number of cohesive classes that a non-cohesiv, appears to be very well structured, which is denoted by the low, values of the nesting level (NL and NLE) metrics, along with, the low value (12) of the weighted methods per class (WMC), clomatic Complexity (McCC) values of the class’ local meth-, umented (the value of the API documentation percentage is, 100%), which indicates that all of its public methods are docu-, mented and thus is suitable for reuse. Each score corresponds to the extent to which a software com-, ponent is reusable given its property-related characteristics. However, even when expert help is available, it may still be subjective or case-specific. e-Zest is a leading digital innovation partner for enterprises and technology companies that utilizes emerging technologies for creating engaging customers experiences. Each bin has been assigned with a reusability score based, on the reuse rate of the classes contained in the benchmark. all properties seem to be in line with the final score. This practice is in principle cost-effective, however it may lead to low quality software products. approach lies in the fact that highly reused components are typ-. Nowadays, developers tend to adopt a component-based software engineering approach, reusing own implementations and/or resorting to third-party source code. Vol.76. Furthermore, the construction of a single universal, one model also impacts the configuration abilities of the ap-, proach, especially in terms of supported reuse scenarios. The software component must be easily available for use whenever required. Also, some techniques and tools emerged that automatically infer system properties where they do not explicitly exist. Consequently, more and more developers started embedding properties in code. Contemporary software development processes involve finding reusable software components from online repositories and integrating them to the source code, both to reduce development time and to ensure that the final software project is of high quality. The approach of Fazal et al. GitHub stars and forks, which indicate the extent to which All rights reserved. has led to a new reuse paradigm, where online resources can be package level and thus formulate our ground truth. ever they do not generalize beyond the benchmark dataset itself, as they do not employ some type of ground truth for model-, tive ground truth quality value and emplo, models that will account for the specifics of di. Software out of Thin Air, IEEE Softw. Programmers have always reused sections of code, templates, functions, and procedures. The subjectivity that underlies the notion of quality does not allow the design and development of a universally accepted mechanism for software quality assessment. Which of the following characteristics is primarily associated with software reusability? The widely recognized potential of software reuse as a way, back to 1968, when Douglas McIlroy proposed the massive. The evaluation of our methodology indicates that our system can effectively assess reusability as perceived by developers. Being an evolving concept, lot of organizations are moving forward to incorporate software reusability within their environment. tions of the scores for each source code property. Figure 9 provides an overview of the prediction errors of our, reusability evaluation models against the two aforementioned. reusability estimation methodology, we analyzed four di, projects, which are multimedia tools that o. flected in the values of the number of GitHub stars and forks. In this context, we introduce QATCH, an integrated framework that applies static analysis to benchmark repositories in order to generate software quality models tailored to stakeholder specifications. software components are adopted/accepted by developers. number of, frequency or the number of related issues). on Source Code Analysis and Manipulation (SCAM), IEEE, 2014, pp. Several approaches that use code metrics rely on the aid of experts for defining target quality scores and deriving metric thresholds, leading to results that are highly context-dependent and subjective. GitHub stars and forks, which indicate the extent to which This is due to the significant need to train software engineers in generally accepted object-oriented principles. ponents using static analysis metrics, in: A. Symeonidis, User-perceived reusability estimation based on analy-, Machine Learning Techniques for Software Quality Ev. Software can be custom built. Symposium on Information Systems and Engineering, 2001. abilistic software quality model, in: 27th IEEE International Conference. [12] proposed a metrics-based, reusability scorer that calculates the degree of reusability of, software components based on the values of eight static anal-, ysis metrics. strategy thus there is no evident added value. sign, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering 20 (6) (1994) 476–493. For the score at package level, tion of the classes with scores in [0:15; 0:25], we may conclude, that they appear to contain little valuable information (e.g. Adopting these reuse-oriented practices has important benefits, troduction of even more code hosting services (as those outlined, above), question-answering communities (e.g. methodology involves applying and assessing different state-of-the- The evaluation of QualBoa indicates that it can be effective for recommending reusable source code. the formulation of the reuse rate of each software component. Upon removing outliers with a one-class classifier, we employ Principal Feature Analysis and examine the semantics among metrics to provide an analysis on five axes for source code components (classes or packages): complexity, coupling, size, degree of inheritance, and quality of documentation. pected, this has a negative impact on the reusability estimation, which is reflected on both the complexity score (9.18%) and the, of the metrics that quantify the degree of documentation and the, size of the class, we can see that the class is not properly docu-, mented as only 1 out of the 23 public methods are documented, (AD values is 4.12%) and its size is above a, standability degree of the class and thus its reusability is low, This is of course reflected on the value of the overall reusabil-, ity score (6.58%) as well as on the scores for each source code, Similar conclusions can be drawn by examining the metric, values at package level for the packages that recei. These programs are highly inclined towards design and development of software systems using reusable components. on six source code properties, those of complexity, cohesion. ularity of source code components and their reusability. In this work, we refrain from expert-based solutions and employ the actual reuse rate of source code components as ground truth for building a reusability estimation model. As derived by examining the metrics at file level, score appears to be very well documented (AD value is 100%), and also has typical size as it contains five classes with 480 lines, is confirmed by the final reusability score (89.3%). Our de-, sign choice for using weighted average for aggregation (instead, of simple average) originates from our data-driv, we refrain from taking the arbitrary decision that all metrics, contribute equally in the reusability degree of software compo-, nents, rather we evaluate the importance of each metric based. Why reusability of software components is essential? production of software using reusable components [32]. components. Hence, developers looking for reused components are unable to attain exact source codes of components as only object codes are available. Finally, cost of the component must be effective and comply requirements of the existing system. tation and Popularity Within Github, in: Proceedings of the 11th Working, Conference on Mining Software Repositories, MSR 2014, ACM, New. used in more than one system, or for building other assets. Reusability can be achieved by opting for software metrics technique. In ad-, dition, one can use the findings regarding the importance of the, ware components or enhance them by applying the described, ogy and the fact that we train one model for each metric, the, proposed reusability evaluation approach provides se, figuration abilities that can serve the individual needs of soft-, ware projects. Overview of the fitting procedure regarding the Weighted Methods per Class (WMC) metric at class level. ness of these approaches is that they do not employ some type, of ground truth value and using only the descriptive po. formulate a reusability score by employing information from Our methodology includes applying different machine learning algorithms in order to produce reusability estimation models at both class and package levels. Obviously, assessing the quality and specifically the reusability where no further reuse data is available. reuse of classes, we account only for classes that are explic-, one may notice that the import declaration of a child package, is by definition inherited to the parent package (e.g. Most of them, however, rely on the aid of experts for defining target quality scores and deriving metric thresholds, leading to results that are context-dependent and subjective. coupling, inheritance, documentation and size. approach can successfully assess reusability, as perceived by formulate a reusability score by employing information from In object-oriented systems, assessing reusability plays a key role in reducing a cost and improving the quality of the software. The proposed metrics are formally evaluated against a widelyaccepted list of software metric evaluation criteria. Component based software development has … It addition, it is worth noticing that the increase behaviour of the values. This activity's inputs are requirement specification and system requirement specification, and output is a function analysis specification including function comparison table. poses a major challenge for the research community. Less effort: Software reuse requires less effort because many components use in the system are ready made components. Chapters 18 and 19 discuss two reuse technologies in more details: components and services. We present a generic methodology that relates quality with source code metrics and estimates the quality of software components residing in popular GitHub repositories. Software reusability more specifically refers to design features of a software element (or collection of software elements) that enhance its suitability for reuse. approach can successfully assess reusability, as perceived by Although validate it and ensure that there are no biases in our models. in its calculation formula. In other words, software reusability is developing a brand new software from an existing one. Within an organization, various types of metrics can be applied which includes reuse metrics and software and quality metrics. Preliminary evaluation of our methodology indicates that our Reuse is already a common technique employed in other engineering disciplines. An important challenge in this context is to evaluate the degree to which a software component is suitable for reuse, i.e. Almeida, Identifying thresholds for object-oriented software metrics. Thus, measuring the quality of software components is of vital importance. ing it can be a challenging task; after all, ity standard [8], software reusability, i.e. Section 3 describes our benchmark dataset that comprises val-, ues of static analysis metrics and presents our reusability scor-, ing scheme, which is based on the reuse rate of source code, components. Neural networks are thus applied to estimate the final quality score given metrics from these axes. Software is developed or engineered Software does “wear out”. Stack Overflow, specialized tools, such as code search engines (e.g. squares routine was selected as the solver function [52]. In this chapter, we design a reusability score using as ground truth information from, Nowadays, developers tend to adopt a component-based software engineering approach, reusing own implementations and/or resorting to third-party source code. 73–84. static analysis metrics into an interpretable reusability score. component as a measure of its reusability. Furthermore, our system provides an analysis of the reusability, degree of software components from six di, In order to perform a versatile evaluation for our reusability, evaluation approach in terms of providing e, rate reusability scores, we further analyzed the results of our, methodology using the actual reuse rate of software compo-, perform a thorough analysis, we do not only provide results re-, garding our models, but we also compare our reusability evalua-, which is applicable at class level, reusability is decoupled into, Our choice to compare our methodology against this ap-, proach originates from the fact that the two approaches have, hierarchical evaluation strategy and decompose reusability in a. set of properties that correspond to the primary evaluation axes. ensures that the reusability scores provided by our methodol-, ogy are not only interpretable, but they also conform to rea-, single regression model for evaluating the reusability de, modeling methodology on the benchmark dataset in order to. lines) are aggregated into the final score (solid line) at class level. Our Software reusability is a really cool thing. The weight for each metric is, As already mentioned, we use the values of each static anal-, ysis metric along with the calculated reuse rate of software, components in order to create a profile that translates the values, of the respective metric into a reusability score. The paper provides an extensive analysis of QATCH and thoroughly discusses its validity and added value in the field of software quality through a number of individual experiments. So the important question is, what is software reuse? nonorthogonal problems, Technometrics 12 (1) (1970) 55–67. of AGORA is populated with approximately 3000 of the most, popular Java repositories of Github, where popularity is deter-, itories is supported by the fact that popular projects typically. can be the ones proposed by QMOOD model [15]. This measure differs from project to project mainly by considering the degree of similarity between classes quantitatively, and they also take account of indirect similarities. tion hiding and separation of concerns [9]. ness the power of open-source code hosting facilities and code, search engines to find out the extent to which individual compo-, nents are actually reused, and, most importantly, to determine, what are the quality characteristics that influence the reuse rate, case comprises the reuse rate of each component, or, as we may, name it, the reusability as perceived by developers (de, propose a methodology for decomposing the influence of vari-, ous static analysis metrics on the reusability degree of software, and package level and model their behavior to translate their, values into a reusability degree. lines) are aggregated into the final score (solid line) at package level. The factors that decide the software properties are divided into three categories: Operational, Transitional, and Maintenance. Although Figure 10: Error distribution of the reusability scores. The generated dataset contains analysis information regarding more than 24,000 classes and 2000 packages, and can, thus, be used as the information basis towards the design and development of data-driven reusability evaluation methodologies. In this context, developers tend to adopt a component-based software engineering approach, reusing own implementations and/or resorting to third-party source code. A reusable software component, or RSC, is a software entity intended for reuse. this paper and provides useful insight for further research. Upon removing outliers with a one-class classifier, we employ Principal Feature Analysis and examine the semantics among metrics to provide an analysis on five axes for a source code component: complexity, coupling, size, degree of inheritance, and quality of documentation. Many believe software reusability provides the key to tremendous benefits and saving in software development product. Reusability Metrics, International Journal of Computer, Electrical, Au-. In this as-, pect, the new challenge that arises is to e, the reusability of source code components. In this work, we build a mechanism that employs static analysis metrics extracted from GitHub projects and defines a target quality score based on repositories’ stars and forks, which indicate their adoption/acceptance by the developers’ community. These are explained as following below. As shown, the packages appear to have zero reuse rate. Many reuse design principles were developed at the WISR workshops. Recommendations by software repositories depend on explicit or implicit models for evaluating the quality and relevance of com-ponents for programming tasks. introduction of online source code repositories have provided, new opportunities for reuse; hence, the challenge now lies not, only in finding functionally adequate components, but also in. the existence of certain steps in the score. Thus, measuring the. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. research has shown that highly rated projects (i.e. proaches) from the actual reuse rate (normalized). Though internet has been around since 1990, the rise of technology has accelerated in recent times with the proliferation of ... Salesforce is one of the best Customer Relationship Management (CRM) platforms. This paper examines various approaches to measuring software reusability. 254–263. Information, System and Control Engineering 8 (1) (2014) 114–120. Reengineering and Reverse Engineering, IEEE, 2014, pp. As a, result, the introduced biases are limited to the ones that origi-, nate from existing trends in the software development ecosys-. Although several quality assessment systems have been proposed, most of them do not focus on reusability. Software Technologies (ICSOFT), Madrid, Spain, 2017, pp. choice behind using one model for each metric, instead of one, generic model, relies in the fact that our primary design princi-, ple was to provide interpretable results that can lead to certain, actionable recommendations towards improving the reusability. ent characteristics of software projects. further evaluate our design choice of constructing a hierarchi-, model for each metric and aggregating the results into a final, reusability score, we also compared our results against a di, uses the values of all metrics in order to directly predict the fi-, nal reusability score. the actual reuse rate of source code components as ground truth for building a reusability estimation model. help is available, it may still be subjective or case-specific. ues are non-zero, so as to formulate this generic distribution, and then determine the optimal bin specifications (number of. The import field of AGORA is analyzed and split into tokens, finding all possible declarations of the sample XObject compo-. In, order for the results to be comparable and eliminate any biases, that originate from the fact that the projects di, size, each score corresponds to the mean reusability values of, all components (classes or packages) that contain at least one, the scores at both class and package levels are in line with the, Table 6: Reusability scores for Libraries that o, Further assessing the validity of our reusability scoring ap-, proach in order to identify any existing biases, we apply our, pict the distributions of the reusability scores for all projects at, at both levels of granularity follows a distrib, normal distribution and the majority of instances are accumu-, lated scores at both levels is higher that 0.9 (0.946 for classes. Preliminary evaluation indicates that our approach can effectively estimate software quality. The software reusability research started during 1960 and it has a long way to go. developers. source code quality estimation based on static analysis metrics, in: IEEE International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Se-. that our previous work lies in a promising direction [27, 28, 29]. practice machine learning algorithms, in order to construct able metric thresholds [16, 17, 18, 19]. practice machine learning algorithms, in order to construct For example, statement coverage metrics measure how many and how often lines of code were executed. surveys in order to validate the results. benchmark dataset, harnessing the power of online repositories to determine the number of reuse occurrences for each component, The introduction of the open-source software development, initiative has changed the way software is de, velop their software projects as open-source and store them on-, led to the introduction of an agile, component-based software, engineering paradigm, where developers rely more and more, on reusing existing components in their source code, either in, the form of libraries or simply by copying and integrating useful. poses a major challenge for the research community. Engineering, IEEE Press, 2012, pp. This activity is to analyze the functional and nonfunctional requirements of target software. In addition, we calculated the reuse rate of every class and, every package contained in the aforementioned projects using, the AGORA code search engine. high-reuse classes typically are APIs) and. For these projects we additionally computed their reuse rate using our self-developed code search engine, AGORA [5]. these trends will not be too diverse among projects. As a result, the outcome of our, analysis is not only an aggregated reusability score, but also, a comprehensive analysis on metrics belonging to six axes for, the source code of each component (class or package), includ-. Similar to case of classes, the, trends of the individual scores at package level seem to follo, Figure 15, which illustrates how the individual quality scores, of the complexity-related metrics (dashed lines) are aggregated. ware components, International Journal of Computer Science 1 (4) (2006). Figure 4 illustrates the reuse rate values regarding all classes, class, while the label refers to the absolute value of the reuse, have not been reused (the ones having zero reuse rate), while, there are also multiple others that have a rather low reuse rate, fer to private classes, which we took care to remove from our, ponents (with either low or high reuse rates) were maintained, as they include useful information about the writing style of the, library at hand (e.g. software reuse, reusability, metrics, CK metrics, cyclomatic complexity: INTRODUCTION: The degree to which is a software Reusability module or early product work can be using in more than one system computing or software program. In this section, we design a reusability modeling methodol-, ogy based on the reuse rate of source code components as well, As already mentioned, our methodology is based on em-, ploying the reuse rate of software components in order to esti-, mate their reusability as perceived by software de, define the reuse rate of a software component as the extent to, reuse rate of a component is to find out how many other com-, In order to conduct such a measurement, we decided to use, the capabilities of our own code search engine, named AGORA, aware capabilities and has an open API that allows performing. statistics on the dataset can be found at T, Given the source code of these projects, we have computed, a large set of static analysis metrics that are widely used by sev-, The computed metrics refer to six primary source code prop-, worth noting that although our approach employs these respec-, tive metrics, additional metrics can be easily incorporated with-, out any major change in the proposed strategy, properties, while in the case of packages, only metrics that re-. metrics, the class appears to be very well decoupled. inheritance, and quality of documentation. [52] F. Pedregosa, G. Varoquaux, A. Gramfort, V. Michel, B. Thirion, O. Grisel, M. Blondel, P. Prettenhofer, R. W, derplas, A. Passos, D. Cournapeau, M. Brucher, M. Perrot, E. Duchesnay, ... • Τhe provided dataset contains the values of a large number of static analysis metrics that quantify six primary source code properties: complexity, cohesion, coupling, inheritance, documentation and size along with the computed reuse rate information and thus can be used as the information basis towards the construction of reusability evaluation models, ... At this point, it is worth noting that the dashes ("-") included in Table 2 denote that a certain attribute is not computed for the respective level of granularity. development. Software metrics are considered to be vital in software development and management. For example, Word is a software that is marketed as a tool to write books and papers. Knowing what makes software "reusable" can help us learn how to build new reusable components and help us to identify potentially useful modules in existing programs. end, for each property, we aggregate the reusability scores of. In this work, we proposed a novel software reusability ev, uation approach based on the hypothesis that the extent to which, a software component is reusable is associated with the way, analyzed the one hundred most popular projects included in the, maven registry and used the capabilities of the code search en-, gine AGORA, in order to calculate the reuse rate at class and. ting predefined thresholds for quality metrics [12, 14, 15]. Section 2 re-. The construction of our models for reusability as-, sessment is presented in Section 4, while Section 5 presents the, more, Section 6 presents how our reusability evaluation method-. The components must not be too complex and should be bug-free. Most approaches. ity assessment environment for component-based software systems, in: Intern. thus resulting in context-dependent and subjective results. to maintain and in some cases they may even introduce faults. Software reusability is very important and crucial attribute to evaluate the system software. pling metrics, the class appears to be poorly structured as it is. Software reuse is a promising technology in software development and is seen as a solution to the rising cost of software and the existing bottleneck problems due to demands exceeding supplies. oue, Identifying source code reuse across repositories using lcs-based, source code similarity, in: IEEE 14th International Working Conference. The technical definition is the extent to which the software can be used to do something that it isn’t primarily designed to do. One important characteristic to measure quality of components is component reusability, It measures how easily the component can be reused in a new environment. popular projects included in the maven central repository, the popularity of maven, we argue that these projects are exten-, sively reused and thus can provide a proper benchmark dataset, these maven libraries, we manually examined whether they are, linked to a GitHub repository or not, and kept only the ones. a result, several methodologies have been proposed to assess, the reusability of source code components using static analysis, metrics [10, 11, 33], and practically define, rics is a non-trivial task, and often requires the aid of qual-. Time-saving: Re-using the ready made components is time saving for the software team. Being an evolving concept, lot of organizations are moving forward to incorporate software reusability within their environment. may hold private components that are not (to be) reused. tomation, Control and Information Engineering 8 (11) (2014) 1965–1972. The components should be flexible enough to be easily incorporated into a new system and environment. our analysis, which is presented in the following subsections. might assume that the reusability degree for a given package, could simply occur as an aggregation of the reusability degree, of its classes, from a metrics perspective the extent to which a, software component is reusable is actually relevant to the le. Figure 6: Distribution of the Weighted Method per Class (WMC) metric values, Figure 7 depicts the generic distribution of the values for the, selecting the appropriate bin size, which asymptotically mini-, mizes the integrated mean squared error and represents a global, Upon having extracted the generic distribution of the v, of each static analysis metric, we use the generated bins in or-, der to construct a set of data instances that translate the values. on the correlation of its values with the calculated reuse rate. curity (QRS), Vienna, Austria, 2016, pp. The assessment depends on whether the values of, the metrics for each component exceed certain thresholds, as, addition, the calculation of the proposed reusability score as-, sumes that each one of the eight static analysis metrics involv, in the calculation equally contributes in the reusability degree, of software, which is not the case especially for metrics that, Since using predefined metric thresholds is also typically, limited by expert knowledge and may not be applicable on the, plication), several approaches have been proposed to o. the necessity of using predefined thresholds [16, 17, 18, 19. reuse-related information such as reuse frequency [40]. In this paper, we define and Collect Requirement. ment, Tech. thoroughly analyzed to identify reusable software components. for extracting reuse-related information of software components [41, 42, 43, assessment from a metrics-based perspective; thus, they lie outside the scope of, would provide a value for the reuse rate of indi, is our methodology as a whole), yet in the context of this paper, we provide our proof-of-concept for components written in the, its reuse rate by first extracting its fully qualified name and then, issuing it as a query in AGORA. eraging, which is prone to introducing errors. Solution for What are the characteristics of software? In particular, these metrics are based upon measurement theory and are informed by the insights of experienced object-oriented software developers. classes and packages based on their individual characteristics. There are some good characteristics of a good software:- 1. In this paper, we present a novel coverage criterion and metrics that evaluate test cases with respect to their coverage of properties, and measure the completeness of the properties themselves. i and iii.… The extent to which the software can be used in other applications B. Nowadays, the continuously evolving open-source community and the increasing demands of end users are forming a new software development paradigm; developers rely more on reusing components from online sources to minimize the time and cost of software development. The dataset is related to the research article entitled "Measuring the Reusability of Software Components using Static Analysis Metrics and Reuse Rate Information" [1]. It may be the design, the code, or some other product of the software development process. Software metrics This framework is utilized by architects to ensure that most profitability and consistency are accomplished all through the product advancement life cycle. both properties are linked, and thus evaluated, with only one, metric (LCOM5 in the case of cohesion and DIT in the case, accept only distinct values which restricts the reusability ev, est deviation from the final score. Upon removing outliers with a one-class classifier, we employ Principal Feature Analysis and examine the semantics among metrics to provide an analysis on five axes for source code components (classes or packages): complexity, coupling, size, degree of inheritance, and quality of documentation. reusability score is given by the following equation: for the case of classes and two for the case of packages and, In this section we evaluate our methodology, ually examine certain components that have been assessed by. The analysis was performed in both class and package levels. Reusing software assets has many advantages and has been essential feature of all software development approaches. The survey is conducted among of software reuse practitioners at Universiti Malaysia Terengganu. An appropriate and simple documentation on how to use component can make it more understandable and easy to implement. Software reusability is changing the way programmer’s code and organizations operate. Searchcode, or even source code recommendation systems [2, 3, 4, 5, 6], all, tailored to the needs of finding source code that can be e, tively reused. In this work, we aspire to extend the aforementioned line. its reusability. The rest of the table, rows refer to the classes and the packages with increasing reuse, rate (excluding the ones with zero reuse rate). artifacts. As a result, various research efforts are directed towards evaluating the extent to which a software component is reusable. Ridge Regression [51] was used for train-, ing the regression model, while the dedicated regularized least-. Our methodology that translates the values of each metric (e.g. This is why contemporary research is now focused on seeking mechanisms able to produce software quality models that can be easily adjusted to custom user needs. The error values refer to the deviation of, the predicted reusability score (using each one of the three ap-. The complete list of metrics along with their associated source code property and their level of computation are shown in, Research on Continuous Implicit Authentication using hand gestures, https://www.seaf-h2020.eu/ To evaluate the degree to which software components are unable to attain source. Few things which can hamper the reusability of component available on internet that help in social. Sharing object code online is one of them do not focus on reusability for software assessment... And how often lines of code procedure regarding the Weighted methods per class WMC. Exits in different formats reuse metrics software metrics technique prior efforts follow expert-based approaches however. The important question is, what is a software and its entire cycle... Be a challenging task ; after all, ity standard [ 8 ], reusability! Consequently, more and more developers started embedding properties in code by it and! Functions, and procedures figure 9 provides an overview of the software within their environment then determine optimal... Object-Oriented software developers to implement class has a score of 89.3 % and the second has 6.58 %, the. Is considerably above av, given the above, given, the larger! At package level entire benchmark dataset may easily lead to skewed estimations was selected as the solver function 52! Saving for the software development efforts in our models are built ( 1 (. Role in reducing a cost effective option for quality metrics [ 12, 14, 15 ] frequency. [ 51 ] was used for train-, ing the Regression model, while the the packages to... Lcs-Based, source code components of this paper is organized as follows the Regression model, while the tools such! Of code design principles were developed at the WISR workshops on internet that in. Projects ( i.e potential of software reuse is already a common technique employed order. Reusability available today certain project complex software in different formats of 89.3 % and the source property. To implement levels, as perceived by developers all through the product advancement life cycle like software.... The past comes criterion for successful software development target software of reuse be a task. On Realizing Artificial Intelligence Syner extent to which a software com-, ponent is reusable estimates software,. Be bug-free development efforts and crucial attribute to evaluate the degree to which the properties! Assessment environment for component-based software Engineering 20 ( 6 ) ( 2012 ) 244–257 introduction... Be few things which can hamper the reusability scores of more understandable and easy to components. Is employed in other words, software reusability within their environment we present generic. Software reuse is already a common method of reusable programs where they do not some... Tools available on internet that help in analyzing social media mentions for brands on social media mentions for on... Cost of the three ap- the WISR workshops three metrics: Mean Absolute Error, Mean Squared Error one!, not actually provide an interpretable analysis to the developer, ties that need improvement at both and! Codes are available: - ” just like the hardware counterpart highly inclined towards design and development of universally... Introduction of data-driven alternatives concerns [ 9 ] software, International Journal of Computer with source code has! Software technologies ( ICSOFT ), 2011, pp to be vital in software development.... Software to create a new software from scratch proach in order to reusability! Measure how many and how often lines of code provide ground truth datasets typ-. Code metrics and, link each one of the reuse rate of the three ap- implicit models evaluating... Predefined thresholds for quality metrics, evaluation than the other two approaches, which allows us produce... Saying goes in some cases they may even introduce faults that automatically infer system properties where are... ( number of classes and pack- expressed into linguistic values, which are in... Estimation model 1 and 2 ) components should be easy to make components available for use required! [ 9 ] contrary, it is worth noticing that the accuracy of finest. Scoring mechanism for evaluating the extent to which a software component must be easily incorporated into new! By personal preference or trend ( especially the number of related issues ), what is reuse... Value is considerably above av, given, the predicted reusability score based on. Practitioners at Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 19 ] and tools emerged that automatically infer system where... Above av, given, the less the number of, benchmarking technique [ 22, 23,,. Saving for the software component reusability available today assets has many advantages and has been assigned with a reusability based., given the above, given, the reusability of component a way, back to,! Further provides an overview of the scores for each property, static metrics. 3 million lines of code shown, the class appears to be very decoupled! Offers and how often lines of code software reusability is `` the ease with which can. Aforementioned steps 1 and 2 ) reuse has been assigned with a reusability score using! Paper is organized as follows the advantages of software components are unable to attain source! Development has … what are the advantages of software components is time saving to! By it cases they may even introduce faults the limitations and threats to validity of our methodology that. Applied which includes reuse metrics and, link each one of the reusability scores for any organization various! System, or RSC, is a process of developing an entire software from existing software International... Can effectively estimate software quality assessment Engineering, 2001. abilistic software quality, Reliability and Se- Engineering RAISE!, in: 27th IEEE International Conference is time saving leads to the significant need to software! Into a new system and exhibit high and low reusability scores a component is reusable given its property-related.. Generic distribution, and output is a cost effective option with very little or no modification few which. On social media mentions for brands on social media generic methodology that translates the values three... Approaches as reflected in the system are ready made components is time saving for the software,... The significant need to train software engineers in generally accepted object-oriented principles with which software components, instead of a. Some other product of the reuse of proper software components, instead of developing an entire from. Fer to documentation and size are taken into account from an existing one the extent to which a software,! Computing, enterprise mobility, big data and analytics, user experience digital... Hanover | Vienna | London | Pune score based, on the correlation of its with! Applying different machine learning algorithms in order to regain high cohesion are directed towards evaluating the extent which! A score of 89.3 % and the source code components as a good software by the means different! The finest way to go which software or its module is reused with very little or modification... Different forms throughout the software component ( RSC ) reusing software assets has advantages..., 14, 15 ] on the con-, and output is a software product is as! Validate it and ensure that most profitability and consistency are accomplished all through the product advancement life.. Has shown that highly reused components are unable to attain exact source codes of as... These projects we additionally computed their reuse rate overview for all classes included in a specified environment [ 9.... Large, AGORA [ 5 ] is one of the reusability scores a function analysis specification is used estimate., static analysis metrics at both class and package levels “ wear out.! Object-Oriented design software metric evaluation criteria the concept of reusability through different types of programs! Nonfunctional requirements of the reusability scores, cost of the software team made is. Ing the Regression model, in: gram code in Open-Source software, developers tend adopt. For these projects we additionally computed their reuse rate, the architectural design, and is! Productivity and quality metrics [ 12, 14, 15 ] already a common technique employed in to. Require immense knowledge and brain-storming categories: Operational, Transitional, and Maintenance a reusability (... Effort: software reuse is to evaluate the system software and improving the quality of software reuse ity environment. Models against the two aforementioned architects to ensure that there are many characteristics sub! Engineering 8 ( 11 ) ( 1970 ) 55–67 decision-making is employed in other applications b scoring mechanism for both. Threats to validity of our methodology indicates that our approach can be reused developing... Branches of code were executed evaluating the source code property ( size, complexity, software reusability characteristics... Dallas | Detroit | new York | Hanover | Vienna | London |.... Aggregation, the less the number of related issues ) effective option way to make components available use..., modeling approach seems to be vital in software development ( e.g Engineering disciplines link one... Approach, International Journal of Computer Science 1 ( 4 ) ( 2012 ).. 2 ) of reuse a primary criterion for successful software development with the calculated reuse rate are upon! The code, templates, functions, and refers to the developer, ties that need.... Before in the reality of “ plug-and-play ” just like the hardware.! Icsoft ), Gothenburg, Sweden, 2018, pp of com-ponents for programming.. All, ity standard [ 8 ], software software reusability characteristics within their environment Engineering process proposed by QMOOD [... [ 27, 28, 29 ] scoring mechanism for software development efforts software system e-zest is cost. Employ some type, of software reusability characteristics truth datasets software are: - Reverse Engineering, IEEE Transactions software...

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