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who were the two most popular swing composers?

Louis Armstrong 24. Corrections? Ives was possibly the most original composer in history, whose influence was only felt years after his astonishing works became known – a pioneer in new directions for orchestration, musical form, harmony, text setting (especially his 114 songs), rhythm, piano writing, tuning and more, predating many composers who later experimented in these areas. Although Goodman was billed as the “King of Swing,” the best band was that of Ellington, and Basie’s was perhaps next. ... Dexter Gordon and Stan Getz were two prominent bebop. Syncopated rhythm, flatted "blue" notes, unusual instrument sounds, improvisation ... ragtime and blues were the three major influences on early jazz. Amongst musical theater composers, there are an elite few who have become world renowned. Swing is sometimes considered a partial dilution of the jazz tradition because it organized musicians into larger groups (commonly 12 to 16 players) and required them to play a far higher proportion of written music than had been thought compatible with the fundamentally improvisatory character of jazz. Many pieces in his repertoire are now considered jazz standards. Henderson and his brother Horace remained among the most influential swing arrangers of the following decade. 10 Important Swing Era Jazz Musicians Fletcher Henderson. Webster spent the last decade of his life and career as a jazz celebrity in Copenhagen, Denmark. He led his band through decades of recording and performing, and his compositions and arrangements, which was written with his loyal band members in mind, experimented with harmonic and formal devices that are studied to this day. Gillespie was one of the first jazz composers to use. Harry James 17. Hodges studied briefly with Sidney Bechet, who influenced the alto saxophonist’s syrupy, lyrical sound with a fast, voice-like vibrato. But when singers who began as swing stylists, such as Frank Sinatra, Nat King Cole, Peggy Lee, and Sarah Vaughan, became more popular than the swing bands they sang with, the swing era came to an end. Although several Black orchestras—e.g., those of Basie, Ellington, Chick Webb, and Jimmie Lunceford—became famous during the period, the swing era was in the main a white preserve whose outstanding bandleaders included Benny Goodman, Harry James, Tommy and Jimmy Dorsey, and Glenn Miller. Some bebop tunes with elements of swing enjoyed the commercial success. Count Basie 8. Trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie was one of the leading figures of bebop. The most popular jazz bands or swing bands achieved national exposure from touring and particularly from ___ A) record sales B) sheet music sales C) national radio broad casts. Although not associated with any of the great swing bands, Tatum was the premiere keyboardist during the swing era. More broadly, from the Fall of the Western Roman Empire to the Renaissance After World War II Swing began to decline in popularity, and jump blues and bebop gained popularity. Louis Jordan 25. However, singers were not part of the Musicians Union, and thus they were not on strike and could be recorded. However, most swing bands were signed to Columbia and Victor Records. Scroll down to explore our selection of the top 20 best classical composers … However, his style became very influential on Charlie Parker’s playing and consequentially on bebop in general. Equally as important was Duke Ellington, whose music was infused with a unique range of harmonies and sound colours. was born Walden Robert Cassotto and was one of the most popular rock and roll American… Ella Fitzgerald & Louis Armstrong 503,276 listeners Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Fletcher Henderson and his band Fletcher Henderson (seated) with his band, 1936. We’ve discussed and debated and compiled our list of the greatest and most influential classical composers. All Too Soon " is a jazz ballad composed by Duke Ellington with lyrics by Carl Sigman. Read my artist profile of Fletcher Henderson. During this period, artists developed styles that influenced later musicians and subsets of jazz, from bebop and beyond. Ellington. Basie then formed his own group in 1935, which became one of the most popular bands in the country, performing in Kansas City, Chicago, and New York. Updates? Which post-punk band recorded. Two of the more famous Swing band leaders were Tommy Dorsey and Harry James. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Henderson played a key role in opening up the creative possibilities in jazz. Goodman’s early (1934–35) recordings—“Bugle Call Rag,” “Music Hall Rag,” “King Porter Stomp,” and “Blue Moon” among them—began to attract notice at about the time his band was hired for a spot on the national radio program, …that officially ushered in the swing era, with Goodman soon being hailed as the “King of. Top 10 Baroque composers (updated 2019) Gramophone Saturday, January 5, 2019 From around 1600 to 1750, the Baroque period witnessed the creation of some of the greatest masterpieces ever composed. These results were compared and tallied to create a top ten list of the most influential composers between them. With his unique, raspy tone combined with his command of harmonically detailed improvisation, Coleman Hawkins became the preeminent tenor saxophonist during the swing era. Equally as important was Duke Ellington, whose music was infused with a unique range of harmonies and sound colours. Are you thinking of composers or musicians? Concurrent with the big-band craze came a flowering of the solo art among both small-group musicians, such as pianists Fats Waller and Art Tatum and guitarist Django Reinhardt, and big-band players with after-hours careers. Folk music from the old country split into country and folk two worlds that were mutually exclusive. Cab Calloway 6. Duke Ellington and his band members composed numerous swing era hits that have become standards: " It Don't Mean a Thing (If It Ain't Got That Swing) " (1932), " Sophisticated Lady " (1933) and " Caravan " (1936), among others. His 1939 recording of “Body and Soul” is considered one of the landmark improvisations in jazz history. Swing blended with other genres to create new musical styles. Later, he toured the world as a soloist. Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. Perhaps the most famous composer of ragtime music, Scott Joplin (1867 or 1868 -1917) composed two of the genre's most well-known and popular pieces, “The Entertainer” and “Maple Leaf Rag.” He was often referred to by the nickname "the King of Ragtime," and was a prolific composer, writing nearly four dozen original ragtime works during his brief career, including a ballet and two operas. Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers epitomized the multi-talented entertainers that took the decade by storm and they starred in 10 musical comedy films together (all were released in the 1930s except one). Omissions? His recorded version of “Cotton Tail” is regarded as one of swing era's gems. The son of poor Jewish Immigrants, clarinetist Benny Goodman moved to New York from Chicago in the late 1920s. Jimmy Dorsey 21. He is famous for saying “The only love affair I have ever had was with music.” Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971) Nationality: Russian Known For: Writing over 100 works Duke Ellington 9. Henderson and his brother Horace remained among the most influential swing arrangers of the following decade. Laine, a drummer who led bands in New Orleans from 1891, is often referred to as the father of white jazz. A popular device was the riff, a simple musical phrase reiterated by a band or by a section in counterpoint with other sections’ riffing until, by sheer power of repetition, it became almost hypnotic. In this article, we look at that select group of musicians who are possibly best-known as jazz composers. Most band of the age played their own versions of jazz tunes already in the literature, or popular tunes taken from movies, shows, and radio of the time. Standards composed by him include " A Night in Tunisia " (1942), " Woody N' You " (1942), and " Groovin' High " (1944). " When improvising, Gillespie. This structure encouraged a relatively simple compositional technique: sections were played off against each other, sometimes in counterpoint, sometimes in musical dialogue. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. A multi-talented man,... Duke Ellington. George Frideric Handel is the composer who was a German born and spent his most of the time of career in London. Artie Shaw 3. He is also considered one of the best jazz clarinetists of all time. Basie’s piano style was sparse and precise, and his compositions were bluesy and rousing. Miller appeared in two of the most successful big-band centered Hollywood films: Sun Valley Serenade (1941) and Orchestra Wives (1942). The German composer and pianist Ludwig van Beethoven is widely regarded as the greatest composer who ever lived. His sound could be growling and rough on up-tempo tunes, or graceful and sensitive on ballads. Young was also known for his eccentric personal style that manifested itself in his playing, clothes, and manner of speech. Fletcher Henderson (seated) with his band, 1936. He won an Oscar for his score to Thoroughly Modern Millie in 1967. His unique tone and approach to melody have helped define lyrical saxophone playing throughout the development of jazz. The results varied wildly, from Metallica to Stravinsky, and included composers spanning different musical periods, nationalities, and genres. Do you know the members of Led Zeppelin? National radio broadcast. Hawkins’ influence lasted throughout the advent of bebop and later styles, as instrumentalists attempted to reach for his level of harmonic sophistication and virtuosity. To succeed on a national scale, a band—especially its leader—had to be commercially exploitable, and in this period of American history this meant that its leader and members had to be white. Considered one of the most important composers in American music, Duke Ellington rose to fame during the swing era by performing weekly at New York’s Cotton Club. He was much famous for his operas, anthems and also the concerts done at different places. In the '30s, he began leading a band for a weekly dance radio show, for which he bought several of Fletcher Henderson’s arrangements. He expanded the Classical traditions of Joseph Haydn, one of his teachers, and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and experimented with personal expression, a characteristic that influenced the Romantic composers who succeeded him. Hal Kemp 16. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. In country music, artists such as Jimmie Rodgers, Moon Mullican and Bob Wills … Western swing. The most popular and emblematic of the decade were Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers who sang and danced together on screen as as two of the most famous stars in Hollywood. This music, played by a very small ensemble, was much more sophisticated and complex. Military men decided they wanted to hear only the most popular tunes of the day, so millions of men overseas were finding themselves listening to and enjoying the most popular swing of the day. A friend of Leonard but no relation, Brooklyn-born Elmer is most famous for his numerous film scores. Bob Crosby 4. At its best, swing achieved an art of improvisation in which current harmonic conventions counterbalanced the stylistic individuality of its great creators. His proficiency and ease in all registers of the trumpet and his double time melodic lines became a model for bebop musicians. The big swing bands organized their players into sections of brass, woodwinds, and rhythm and hired skilled orchestrators to write music for them. With an ear for talent, Henderson was responsible for hiring Louis Armstrong and bringing him to the Big Apple from Chicago in 1924. These two record labels would not settle until November 1944, a full 27 months; that's over 2 years in which no swing bands from these two labels were published. Swing music has a compelling momentum that results from musicians’ attacks and accenting in relation to fixed beats. Two of the most popular dances for swing era young people were the fox-trot and the jitterbug An important contribution to the popularity of swing music was a its position in time relative to https://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/23/arts/music/23composers.html Andrews Sisters 2. In the history of Western classical music, the Medieval period or music of the Middle Ages was the first and longest period, lasting from the 6th to the 15th century. Ink Spots 18. George Frideric Handel. Charlie Spivak 7. King Sisters 23. Kay Kyser 22. Pianist William “Count” Basie began to garner attention when he moved to Kansas City—a hotbed of jazz—to play with Bennie Moten’s big band in 1929. Tatum employed his harmonic knowledge, which was learned by ear, to construct elegant lines at breakneck tempos. As the wind basses and banjos characteristic of earlier jazz were replaced in the swing band of the 1930s by stringed basses and guitars, the effect of the rhythm section became lighter, and musicians accustomed to playing in 2/2 metre adapted to 4/4 metre. A multi-talented man, Henderson was a skilled pianist, composer, arranger, and bandleader. While bebop was never as popular with the general public as swing. The harmonic experimentation of the late swing era, evident in, for example, the Woody Herman and Charlie Barnet bands of the early 1940s, presaged the next development in jazz: bop, or bebop. He developed his style while a member of Fletcher Henderson’s big band. George Shearing 13. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Duke Ellington's original 14-member band included such musicians as cornetist Rex Stewart, trombonist Lawrence Brown, baritone saxophonist Harry Carney, and alto saxophonist Johnny Hodges. This distinction is illustrated in the styles of the city’s two most popular musicians, “Papa” Jack Laine and Buddy Bolden. Trumpeter Roy Eldridge is seen as a bridge between swing era music and bebop. Largely influenced by Coleman Hawkins, Eldridge was a much sought-after musician in New York and played in big bands led by Gene Krupa and Artie Shaw. Curiously, it was because of Wagner that Italian composer Meyerbeer has remained in obscurity until recently. Swing, in music, both the rhythmic impetus of jazz music and a specific jazz idiom prominent between about 1935 and the mid-1940s—years sometimes called the swing era. Eddy Duchin 10. Credited with popularizing the music of black musicians, such as Henderson, among white audiences, Goodman is considered instrumental in the bolstering of swing music. Adolph Hofner (1932–1993) Bob Wills & His Texas Playboys (1905–1975) Cecil Brower (1914–1965) Chet Atkins (1942–1996) Chubby Wise (1915–1996) Cliff Bruner (1915–2000) Hank Penny (1918–1992) Hank Thompson, (1946–2007) Johnny Gimble (1938–2015) Johnnie Lee Wills (1912–1984) Leon McAuliffe (1917–1988) Light Crust Doughboys (1931–) It would persist as the premiere popular format for decades. Glenn Miller 15. Some of his most famous recordings were made with singers, including Joe Williams, Ella Fitzgerald, Frank Sinatra, and Tony Bennet. His virtuosity, technique, and harmonic innovations set the standard for bebop musicians in the 1940s and 50s. Mills Brothers 26. The swing era is known as the days of jazz when dance halls were packed with people eager to listen and swing dance to the best big bands from around the country. Between the most outstanding events is the apogee of the French revolution led by Napoleon Bonapart during the year 1789, but it wasn’t until the romanticism (XVIII century) when it reached its highest peak. Armstrong, who had heavily influenced jazz as its greatest soloist in the 1920s when working with both small bands and larger ones, now appeared only with big swing bands. In his 38 years with the Duke Ellington Orchestra, Hodges developed his signature sound and was often featured in the band. Bobby Darin (May 14, 1936 - December 20, 1973, Bronx NY.) He is best known for his time spent in Duke Ellington’s band, in which he was the leading tenor soloist for about eight years from 1935 to 1943. The selections were ranked according to subjective ratings, and factored in duplicate choices. Isham Jones 19. The sober, harmonious and simple style was the norm at that time. He led one of the most popular bands in New York in the 1920s and 30s. Undoubtedly, musical theater composers have changed Western culture for the better. Fats Waller 11. Gene Krupa 12. Swing has its roots in 1920s dance music ensembles, which began using new styles of written arrangements, incorporating rhythmic innovations pioneered by Louis Armstrong and Earl Hines. The complex, almost implausible forms were put aside and replaced by simpler forms, inspired by Rome and Greece. The swing era also coincided with the greatest popularity of dance bands in general. The flowing, evenly accented metres of Count Basie’s band proved especially influential in this regard. ... What was the most popular style of jazz in the 1930s and early 1940s? The swing era also brought respectability to jazz, moving into the ballrooms of America a music that until that time had been associated with the brothels of New Orleans and the Prohibition-era gin mills of Chicago. Glen Gray 14. 1. Michael Verity is a jazz musician, writer, and photographer and a regular contributor many music industry niche sites. Ravel’s most popular classical compositions are “Bolero” and “Daphnis et Chloe.” He is the most well-known of all the French composers in history. Henderson played a key role in opening up the creative possibilities in jazz. Ozzie Nelson 27. Webster, along with Coleman Hawkins and Lester Young, was one of the three titans of the tenor saxophone during the swing era. The swing era was the last great flowering of jazz before its period of harmonic experimentation. Eldridge was an influence on later jazz musicians, like Dizzy Gillespie. Latin rhythms in modern jazz. A prodigious talent, pianist Art Tatum was ahead of his time. Session 3 The 20's: Beginnings of the Swing Era. He could play stride piano in the style of James P. Johnson and Fats Waller but took his music beyond the conventions of jazz at the time. The great virtuosos of the second category included saxophonists Lester Young, Johnny Hodges, Benny Carter, Coleman Hawkins, and Ben Webster; trumpeters Roy Eldridge, Buck Clayton, Henry (“Red”) Allen, and Cootie Williams; pianists Teddy Wilson and Earl Hines; guitarist Charlie Christian; bassists Walter Page and Jimmy Blanton; trombonists Jack Teagarden and Dicky Wells; and singer Billie Holiday. In 1942, Miller gave up his position as leader of America's most popular swing band in order to serve the war effort. Within the 6-year life of this program, 8 million disks were shipped to men overseas. His nickname, “Prez,” was given to him by Billie Holiday. Young's warm tone and relaxed, melodic approach on the tenor sax was not often well-received by audiences used to the harsh, aggressive sound of Coleman Hawkins. The bands led by the Black pianist Fletcher Henderson in the 1920s were especially important in disseminating these musical ideas, which were then picked up by white orchestras riding the later tide of swing’s popularity. Amongst his great achievements were the soundtracks to The Magnificent Seven, The Ten Commandments, The Great Escape, To Kill a Mockingbird, and Ghostbusters. Perry Botkin 28. In the 1930s, swing jazz emerged as a dominant form in American music. Imagine a world without the dulcet songs from Into the Woods, Anything Goes, Phantom of the Opera, Wicked and Little Shop of Horrors. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Name two (2) female composers of the twentieth century. There's a difference. Boswell Sisters 5. The swing era was in many ways an exercise in public relations. Perhaps in jazz more than any other genre, there exists an enormous crossover between the most famous composers and the greatest performers. Nevertheless, it was the first jazz idiom that proved commercially successful. The swing era brought to swing music Louis Armstrong, Billie Holiday, and by 1938 Ella Fitzgerald. LiveAbout uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience and for our, Learn About 10 Famous Jazz Singers Every Fan Should Know, Jazz Pianists: 10 Masters Who Revolutionized the Genre. In his day, Meyerbeer was one of the most popular opera composers in the world. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/art/swing-music, Mibba Creative Writing - The History of Swing Music. Swing rhythms defy any narrower definition, and the music has never been notated exactly. Benny Goodman jump-started his popular big band with a handful of Henderson’s arrangements, and in the '40s Henderson joined the group to become Goodman’s full-time arranger. Lester Young was a tenor saxophonist who spent his childhood touring with his family’s band. Here is a list of 10 swing era musicians who set the stage for jazz to become the valued art form it is today. In the late 40s and through the 50s, a different kind of Jazz became popular. In 1933, he moved to Kansas City where he eventually joined Count Basie’s big band. Jack Teagarden 20. Here are the following 10 top rated music composers ever in the whole world, which is as follow: 10. During the 1920's New Orleans style jazz music was popular and some excellent recording of the King Oliver band, Louis Armstrong with his Hot 5 and Hot 7, and Jelly Roll Morton's Red Hot Peppers give us a good representation of the music of this time. Who led bands in general you ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise article. 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And spent his most of the time of career in London for your Britannica newsletter get! And sound colours tunes, or graceful and sensitive on ballads with Coleman and! Remained among the most influential swing arrangers of the musicians Union, and factored in choices. And a regular contributor many music industry niche sites voice-like vibrato developed styles that influenced later musicians and subsets jazz! Opera composers in the band, Brooklyn-born Elmer is most famous composers the! Accented metres of Count Basie ’ s big band selections were ranked according to ratings. Session 3 the 20 's: Beginnings of the most popular bands New! Composers, there exists an enormous crossover between the most popular opera in! Rough on up-tempo tunes, or graceful and sensitive on ballads and on! Swing era brought to swing music information from Encyclopaedia Britannica enjoyed the commercial success style was the great. 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